D. Use of Individual Evidence-based InterventionsThis is a featured page

E. Use of Individual Evidence-based Interventions (Differentiate among primary, secondary, tertiary prevention of health promotion, prevention, assistance, rehabilitation etc)

General Discussion:

Research

Reports/Resources

  • School-Based Mental Health: An Empirical Guide for Decision-Makers (Research & Training Center on Mental Health, University of South Florida, 2006)
    The guide provides practical information and advice for those engaged in developing and implementing effective evidence-based services in the school setting. This resource (1) describes the principal models and approaches identified in the literature from mental health and education, (2) critiques the empirical support for the approaches described, and (3) suggests how science, policy, and practice can be integrated to achieve effective school-based mental health service systems through the adoption of the public health model.


E-1 Policy Interventions

Research

Reports/Resources
Overview

Naudeau, Sophie;Cunningham, Wendy;Lundberg, Mattias K. A.;McGinnis, Linda (2008)
Programs and Policies that Promote Positive Youth Development and Prevent Risky Behaviors: An International Perspective New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, n122 p75-87 Win 2008

Government Policy on Mental Health, Families, Mental Health Services,
Schools


School Board Policy on Mental Health & related Topics


Health Authority/Childrens' Hospital Policy on Children & Working with Schools


Guidelines for Mental Health, Social Services, Public Health Professionals, Police Officers




E-2 Instructional Interventions (Focus on general as well as specific skills, specific functional knowledge, normative beliefs, teacher skills, support for instruction, better scope/sequence of curricula)

Research

Reports/Resources
General Overview/Curriculum Design/Intended Learning Outputs



Health, Personal and Social Development Education
The International School Health Network has drafted a thorough description of Health, Personal and Social Development Education. The summary describes all aspects of HPSD education and defines a variety of related terms and concepts
. There are several types of learning objectives that can be achieved in effective HPSD curricula and programs. These include:

  • Focusing on functional or practical knowledge rather than simply presenting facts about health/social issues (eg too much detail on how STI are transmitted and not on enough on the fact that a person can have an STI and still look healthy)
  • Developing and practicing general social, decision-making, life, media and decision-making/reasoning skills as well as practice and rehearsals in skills for specific situations (such as refusing alcohol)
  • Promoting specific, practical age-appropriate behaviours (e.g. how to discuss/negotiate/refuse sex with partner) and providing specific pre-planned situational options (e.g. having a back-up drive home from parties) that can be sustained by the students rather than general and unrealistic calls for abstinence, alarmist messages contrary to prevailing social norms (alcohol is bad for you in communities where most adults drink)
  • Addressing social pressures and influences through media literacy education, instruction about puberty, relationships with peers and peer pressure, how to communicate with parents and other adults
  • Influencing normative beliefs, perceptions and attitudes through deconstructing mis-perceptions and providing factual information and investigation of collective behaviours of their peers/fellow students
  • Personalizing information and risks about health and social problems and behaviours through inquiry-based learning, reflective journalling, role plays and other activities
  • Increasing self-awareness and awareness of the values and expectations of their parents, schools and communities
  • Developing stronger empathy with others and greater social responsibility for promoting the health and welfare of others

National Integrated Framework for Enhancing Mental Health Literacy in Canada The Canadian Alliance on Mental Illness and Mental Health is pleased to present this National Integrated Framework for enhancing Mental Health Literacy in Canada. We have defined mental health literacy as the knowledge and skills that enable people to access, understand and apply information for mental health. This definition places more of an emphasis on empowerment for health, a key concept in health promotion and health literacy. This National Framework represents the culmination of almost four years of research, planning and consultation across Canada. This project was initiated to research the mental health literacy of Canadians, to compare it with findings from other jurisdictions, to share the findings with key partners and in partnership, to develop an integrated strategy to improve mental health literacy in Canada. Full Final Report

Mental Health Literacy: A Research Review The term mental health literacy was first introduced in Australia by Anthony Jorm. It is derived from the term health literacy, originally defined as a functional capacity related to basic literacy skills and how these affect the ability of people to access and use health information. In recent years, the definition of health literacy has expanded to include the development of increasingly complex and interactive cognitive and social skills, which are related to personal and collective empowerment for health promotion. At the 5th WHO Global Conference on Health Promotion it was noted that health literacy is not only a personal characteristic, but also a key determinant of population health.

Mental health literacy has been defined as “knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management or prevention”. More recently, researchers have suggested that mental health literacy is not a single dimension but rather represents knowledge and beliefs about mental health disorders that emerge from general pre-existing belief systems. Mental health literacy represents a relatively new area of investigation. Compared to health literacy, researchers and policymakers have not yet articulated a comprehensive model that organizes mental health literacy along a gradient of evolving skills and capacities that build empowerment for mental health promotion. Recent work in the field however, such as the beyondblue campaign in Australia, shows the effectiveness of adopting a broad, multi-level approach across several domains. This paper applies the conceptual model for health literacy to mental health literacy on the assumption that the skills and capacities that lead to personal and collective empowerment for health promotion are no different from those needed for mental health promotion.
Full Review

National Survey on Mental Health Literacy of Canadians (June 2008)Canadians get passing grade in mental health literacy Canadians are more inclined to recommend medical help for symptoms of mental disorders and are optimistic about the prospect for recovery from common mental health problems, according to the results of a national survey on mental health literacy in Canada.

In partnership with the Regional Health Authorities, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Child and Family Development (MCFD), BC Partners for Mental Health and Addictions Information and other Community Organizations, BC Mental Health and Addiction Services is leading the development and implementation of an integrated provincial strategy to promote health literacy in mental health and addictions in BC. Its goal: to ensure that high quality, evidence-based information is accessible to the public, including people who experience or are at risk of mental health and substance use problems, their families, service provides and communities/organizations. Its objectives include: To improve the prevention, early recognition, and self-management of mental health and substance use problems To increase help-seeking knowledge, attitudes and behaviours To improve public attitudes and understanding of mental health and substance use problems and reduce discrimination/stigma Next steps include establishing a provincial network (the BC Mental Health and Addiction Health Literacy Network) to support implementation of this plan, including coordination, planning and priority setting for integrated action. A key role for the Network will be the development of a strategy for identification and prioritization of health literacy needs.

Instructional Programs

Kimber B, Sandell R, Bremberg S (2008)
Social and emotional training in Swedish schools for the promotion of mental health: an effectiveness study of 5 years of intervention. Health Educ. Res. 2008 23: 931-940

Slade EP. Effects of school-based mental health programs on mental health service use by adolescents at school and in the community. Ment Health Serv Res. 2002 Sep;4(3):151-66.


Patricia C. Broderick and Stacie Met (2009) Learning to BREATHE: A Pilot Trial of a Mindfulness Curriculum for Adolescents,
Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, Vol 2, Issue 1, 35-46

Jonathan Campion and Sharn Rocco(2009) Minding the Mind: The Effects and Potential of a School-Based Meditation Programme for Mental Health Promotion
Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, Vol 2, Issue 1, 47-55
Naylor, P.B., Cowie, H.A., Walters, S.J., Talamelli, L., & Dawkins, J. (2009). Impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescents. British Journal of Psychology, 194, 365-370


  • Canadian Mental Health Association (nd) Coping with Stress, Toronto, ON, Author Our perceptions and reactions to stress-provoking events determine its impact on our health. By understanding ourselves we can learn to handle stress more effectively. This booklet is designed to help readers build better coping skills for managing stress.
  • Life Skills Training(Identified by OJJDP) LST is a substance use prevention program. LST reduces the risks of alcohol, tobacco, drug abuse, and violence by targeting the major social and psychological factors that promote risky behaviors. Teaches self esteem, confidence, and coping skills. The curriculum can be taught in school, community, faith-based, summer school and after-school settings (Described by CSMH, U of Maryland)
  • Lion’s Quest Skills for Action (Identified by CASEL and others) Lions Quest Skills for Action is an innovative and flexible curriculum for grades 9-12 that moves beyond the classroom to build essential life and citizenship skills through community and school-based service-learning experiences. The program, with more than 100 lessons focused around 26 personal, social, and thinking skills, ranges from one semester to four years in length. (Described by CSMH, U of Maryland)
  • Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence Lions-Quest Skills for Adolescence is a comprehensive positive youth development and prevention program designed for school-wide and classroom implementation in grades 6-8 (children 12-14) to develop social and emotional competencies, citizenship skills, positive character, skills and attitudes for drug use prevention, and an ethic of service in a caring environment. SFA was first developed in 1985 and has undergone four revisions and cultural adaptations for use around the world. (Identified by the Canadian Best Practices Portal)
  • Problem Solving for Life Program The Problem Solving for Life Program is a classroom based cognitive restructuring and problem-solving skills training program that is based on a universal approach to prevent depression in adolescent children of age between 12 and 14 years who were studying in grade 8 at coeducational high schools located in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. (Identified by the Canadian Best Practices Portal)
  • Resourceful Adolescents Programme (RAP) The aim of the Resourceful Adolescent Programs is to prevent depression and promote well-being and resilience in adolescents. RAP addresses known individual and environmental risk factors for adolescent depression with a view to preventing depression and associated problems (increased risk of suicidal behaviour, and conduct and anxiety problems). (Identified by the Canadian Best Practices Portal)
  • Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP) A school-based violence prevention program for middle school students. RiPP is designed to be implemented along with a peer mediation program. Students practice using a social-cognitive problem-solving model to identify and choose nonviolent strategies for dealing with conflict. RiPP emphasizes behavioral repetition and mental rehearsal of the social-cognitive problem-solving model, experiential learning techniques, and didactic learning modalities. RiPP sessions are taught in the classroom by a school-based prevention specialist and are typically incorporated into existing social studies, health, or science classes. (Identified by the Canadian Best Practices Portal)
  • Roots of Empathy ROE is evidence-based classroom program designed to reduce levels of aggression and violence among school children while raising social/emotional competence and increasing empathy. Elementary classrooms, Kindergarten to Grade 8, adopt a neighbourhood parent and infant for the school year.The ROE curriculum is divided into nine themes, with three classroom visits supporting each theme (a pre-family visit, family visit and post-family visit) for a total of 27 visits. (Identified by the Canadian Best Practices Portal)
  • Zippy’s Friends Zippy’s Friends is a school based mental health promotion programme for five to seven year old children. It usually runs for 24 weeks, with one 45-minute session each week. The programme is built around a set of six stories. Zippy is a stick insect and his friends are a group of young children, and the stories show them confronting issues that are familiar to young children - friendship, communication, feeling lonely, bullying, dealing with change and loss, and making a new start. (Identified by the Canadian Best Practices Portal)
  • Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) (Identified by OJJDP and others) The PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies)PATHS Curriculum is a comprehensive program for promoting emotional and social competencies and reducing aggression and behavior problems in preschool through 5th grade students. The Curriculum, taught three times per week for a minimum of 20-30 minutes per day, provides teachers with systematic, developmentally-based lessons, materials, and instruction. (Described by CSMH, U of Maryland)
  • PATHS to PAX PATHS to PAX is the integration of PATHS and the Good Behavior Game and aims to reduce student behavior problems and drug use, and to enhance academic competence. The PATHS component is a nonsequential series of social/emotional lessons that are grade appropriate and taught in-class on a weekly basis for 15 to 30 minutes. (Described by CSMH, U of Maryland)
  • The Stop and Think Social Skills Program for Schools (Identified by SAMHSA and others) Focused on teaching students interpersonal, problem-solving, and conflict resolution skills, the fourStop & Thinklevels(Prek -1st, 2nd -3rd, 4th – 5th, and 6th – 8th) ensure that all skills are taught in a developmentally-sensitive and appropriate way. Stop and Think uses a behavioral/social learning process. (Described by CSMH, U of Maryland)

  • Al's Pals: Kids Making Healthy Choices is a school-based prevention program that seeks to develop social-emotional skills such as self-control, problem-solving, and healthy decision-making in children ages 3-8 in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. The program fosters both the personal traits of resilience and the nurturing environments children need to overcome difficulties and fully develop their talents and capabilities. (Identified by SAMSHA)

  • Incredible Years is a set of comprehensive, multifaceted, and developmentally based curricula targeting 2- to 12-year-old children and their parents and teachers. The parent, child, and teacher training interventions that compose Incredible Years are guided by developmental theory on the role of multiple interacting risk and protective factors in the development of conduct problems. The three program components are designed to work jointly to promote emotional and social competence (Identified by SAMHSA)

  • Second Step is a classroom-based social-skills program for children 4 to 14 years of age that teaches socio-emotional skills aimed at reducing impulsive and aggressive behavior while increasing social competence. The program builds on cognitive behavioral intervention models integrated with social learning theory, empathy research, and social information-processing theories. The program consists of in-school curricula, parent training, and skill development.

  • Canadian Example: Choosing Healthy Actions and Thoughts Within the Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board, a high priority has been placed on research use and evidence-based education. E-BEST was initiated in 1999 to assist the board to use, do and share research. Since that time, as part of their service, this department has conducted 25-35 program evaluations, including many related to student mental health. For example, with support from the Provincial Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health at CHEO, and in partnership with Hamilton Health Sciences, Offord Centre for Child Studies and Harvard University/Judge Baker Children’s Center, the team has completed a randomized controlled trial of a class-wide depression prevention program, Within the Hamilton-Wentworth District School Board, a high priority has been placed on research use and evidence-based education. E-BEST was initiated in 1999 to assist the board to use, do and share research. Since that time, as part of their service, this department has conducted 25-35 program evaluations, including many related to student mental health. For example, with support from the Provincial Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health at CHEO, and in partnership with Hamilton Health Sciences, Offord Centre for Child Studies and Harvard University/Judge Baker Children’s Center, the team has completed a randomized controlled trial of a class-wide depression prevention program, CHAT (Choosing Healthy Actions and Thoughts). This 20-lesson program, which has been aligned with Grade 7 Ontario Curriculum expectations, was tested in 35 intervention classrooms and 35 comparison classes. The randomized trial followed four years of pilot testing, which showed positive results for enhanced student coping skills following CHAT. Results from the trial will be available in Fall 2009.. This 20-lesson program, which has been aligned with Grade 7 Ontario Curriculum expectations, was tested in 35 intervention classrooms and 35 comparison classes. The randomized trial followed four years of pilot testing, which showed positive results for enhanced student coping skills following CHAT. Results from the trial will be available in Fall 2009.
Teaching/Learning Methods and Teacher Education

Abbott RD, O’Donnell J, Hawkins JD, Hill KG, Kosterman R, Catalano RF. Changing teaching practices to promote achievement and bonding to school.
Am J Orthopsychiatry.
1998; 68(4):542-52.
Finney, Dave (2009) The Road to Self-Efficacy: A Discussion of Generic Training in Mental Health Competencies for Educational Professionals Pastoral Care in Education, v27 n1 p21-28 Mar 2009

Alborz A, Pearson D, Farrell P, Howes A (2009)
The impact of adult support staff on pupils and mainstream schools. Technical Report. In: Research Evidence in Education Library. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London


  • Canadian Example School-based Behaviour Coaches
    Fort McMurray, Edmonton, Alberta
    These two school districts have introduced a collaborative behaviour training program for professionals working to support students with behaviour challenges. This training is geared to teachers, mental health workers, family school liaison workers and behaviour consultants who work with school-based staff. Training is provided to “school-based behaviour coaches” in
    identifying function of behaviour, data collection, positive behaviour support plans and case conferencing using a problem solving framework. We are experiencing great success in terms of participants attending, development of student behaviour
    support plans and collaboration among service providers. School-based behaviour coaches are in a better position to
    support classroom teachers than District-based consultants. Together, we have written a resource for classroom teachers
    and have trained many teachers in its use. Now we are training school-based “coaches’ and other professionals working with
    schools in applying their skills with teachers. We would be pleased to share how other Districts could implement their own
    local training program.

Student Evaluation Standards, Procedures and Reporting


Grade Promotion/Retention Policies and Procedures


Teaching/Learning Materials


Web-based Learning


Norman, C.D., Maley, O., Li, X., & Skinner, H.A. (2008) Using the Internet to assist smoking prevention in schools: A randomized controlled trial. Health Psychology Nov;27(6):799-810.
Bock BC, Graham AL, Whiteley JA, Stoddard JL.(2008) A review of web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATIs). J Med Internet Res. 2008 Nov 6;10(5):e39.
Norman CD, Skinner HA.(2007) Engaging youth in e-health promotion: lessons learned from a decade of TeenNet research. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2007 Aug;18(2):357-69, xii
  • Mauve CD-Video Program (Public Health Agency of Canada) This resource is a CD-based learning aid for teenagers covering topics such as life, love, school, friendships, and family, as well as depression, suicide, drug abuse, school drop-out, and delinquency. It is designed to reach out to all youth, and especially to those who resist adults' conventional way of communication, to help them gain a broader perspective and avoid no-win situations. "Mauve" uses the interactivity of multimedia as a basis for its awareness-building approach and, with its emphasis on teen participation, presents content reflecting their intensity, authenticity and creativity. "Mauve" will provide counsellors, educators and other professionals with a new communication tool to help stimulate reflection and re-establish dialogue with youth, especially those trapped within themselves.
Parent Involvement in Instruction


Peer-led Instruction


Use of External Community Speakers, Survivors etc in Instruction

Mullen, Carol A.;Buttignol, Margie;Diamond, C. T. Patrick (2005) Flyboy: Using the Arts and Theater to Assist Suicidal Adolescents International Journal of Education & the Arts, v6 n5 p1-15 Jul 2005
  • Canadian Example: Character Chronicles. Grade 7 and 8 students within the Rainbow District School Board are leading the way when it comes to building character. They have written and performed a drama production called “Character Chronicles” that highlights key attributes of caring that help to support the well-being of all students.
Specialized Instruction during Treatment, Incarceration or through Individualized Education Plans, Alternative Schools


  • Phoenix Academy (affiliated with Phoenix House Foundation, Inc.) is a therapeutic community (TC) model enhanced to meet the developmental needs of adolescents ages 13-17 with substance abuse and other co-occurring mental health and behavioral disorders. The Phoenix Academy model integrates residential treatment with an on-site public junior high and high school (grades 8-12). Some Phoenix Academy programs also include trade or technical training sponsored by local community colleges (Identified by SAMHSA)

    Canadian Example:
    Giving Teen’s Hope: Brandon’s Off Campus High School
    In September 2007, the Brandon School division expanded its educational services to several teenagers and young adults
    who had dropped out of high school in discouragement and despair. Hope of a bright future was born in the hearts and
    minds of 22 students who registered at Neelin’s Off Campus High School in downtown Brandon. These students
    experienced success after success as they earned or finished their high school credits. Word spread and enrolment
    increased to over 150 students by May 2008. In June 2008, family, friends, community members, staff, trustees and local
    politicians gathered to celebrate the graduation of 39 students. Several parents said they had given up hope on their
    children’s future prior to this.


E-3 Health and Other Services Interventions

Research

Reports/Resources
Overview

Rones M, Hoagwood K. School-based mental health services: a research review.
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2000;3(4): 223-41

Adelman HS. Restructuring education support services & integrating community resources: Beyond the full service school model.
School Psych Review 1996; 25(4):431-445.

Costello-Wells B, McFarland L, Reed J, Walton K. School-based mental health clinics.
J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2003 Apr-Jun;16(2):60-70.
Weist, M.D., Myers, C.P., Hastings, E., Ghuman, H., & Han, Y. (1999). Psychosocial functioning of youth receiving mental health services in the schools vs. the community mental health centers. Community Mental Health Journal, 35, 379-389
Taras HL. School-based mental health services. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun; 113(6):1839-45.

Cuffe SP, Waller JL, Addy CL, McKeown RE, Jackson KL, Moloo J, Garrison CZ. A longitudinal study of adolescent mental health service use.
J of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 2001; 28(10):1-11.

Adelman HS, Taylor L. Mental health in schools and public health.
Public Health Report. 2006 May-Jun;121(3):294-8.

Rosenthal, Beth;Wilson, W. Cody (2008)
Mental Health Services: Use and Disparity among Diverse College Students
Journal of American College Health, v57 n1 p61-68 Jul-Aug 2008
Moskos, Michelle A.;Olson, Lenora;Halbern, Sarah R.;Gray, DougUtah Youth Suicide Study: Barriers to Mental Health Treatment for Adolescents Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, v37 n2 p179-186 Apr 2007

Davren, Moira (2007)
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and the Strategic Context: The Bigger Picture Child Care in Practice, v13 n4 p327-338 Oct 2007

Jensen-Doss, Amanda;Weisz, John R.(2008)
Diagnostic Agreement Predicts Treatment Process and Outcomes in Youth Mental Health Clinics Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v76 n5 p711-722 Oct 2008

McWilliam, R. A. (2006)
What Happened to Service Coordination? Journal of Early Intervention, v28 n3 p166-168 2006

Sapp, Marty (2006)
The Strength-Based Model for Counseling At-Risk Youths Counseling Psychologist, v34 n1 p108-117 2006

Kennard, Betsy D.;Stewart, Sunita M.;
Hughes, Jennifer L.;Jarrett, Robin B.;Emslie, Graham J. (2008) Developing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Depressive Relapse in Youth Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, v15 n4 p387-399 Nov 2008

Hoagwood, K., Erwin, (1997)
Effectiveness of school-based mental health services for children: A 10-year research review Journal of Child and Family Studies Vol 6, 4: 435-51
Armbruster, P. & Lichtman, J. (1999). Are school-based mental health services effective? Evidence from 36 inner city schools. Community Mental Health Journal, 35, 493-504
Rones, M. & Hoagwood, K. (2000). School-based mental health services: A research review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3, 223-241

  • Multisystemic Therapy (Identified by SAMHSA and others) MST addresses risk factors of serious anti-social behavior in juvenile offenders. The multisystemic approach views individuals as part of a complex network of interconnected systems that encompass individual, family, and extrafamilial factors such as peer, school, and neighbourhood. (Described by CSMH, U of Maryland)


Early Identification and Referral

Evans, SW. Mental health services in schools: utilization, effectiveness, and consent.
Clinical Psychology Review 1999; 19(2):165-178.

Finney JW, Weist MD. Behavioral Assessment of Children and Adolescents.
Pediatric Clinics of North America 1992; 39(3):369-378.

Jones D, Dodge KA, Foster EM, Nix R; Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. Early identification of children at risk for costly mental health service use.
Prev Sci. 2002 Dec;3(4):247-56.

Wade, Darryl;Johnston, Amy;
Campbell, Bronwyn;Littlefield, Lyn (2007) Early Intervention Services in Youth Mental Health
Clinical Psychologist, v11 n3 p108-114 Nov 2007
Pottick, Kathleen J.;Kirk, Stuart A.;Hsieh, Derek K.;Tian, Xin (2007) Judging Mental Disorder in Youths: Effects of Client, Clinician, and Contextual Differences Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, v75 n1 p1-8 Feb 2007

Moor, Stephanie;Maguire, Ann;
McQueen, Hester;Wells, J. Elisabeth;Elton, Robert;Wrate, Robert;Blair, Caroline (2007) Improving the Recognition of Depression in Adolescence: Can We Teach the Teachers? Journal of Adolescence, v30 n1 p81-95 Feb 2007

  • Primary Project (formerly the Primary Mental Health Project, or PMHP) is a school-based program designed for early detection and prevention of school adjustment difficulties in children 4-9 years old (preschool through 3rd grade). The program begins with screening to identify children with early school adjustment difficulties (e.g., mild aggression, withdrawal, and learning difficulties) that interfere with learning (Identified by SAMHSA)

  • Canadian Example: Right from the Start
    The Right from the Start project is one of 32 projects across the province of Alberta funded through Alberta Health Services. We are based out of two elementary schools (K-6) within the
    Canadian Rockies Public Schools Division. Our mandate is to provide mental health capacity building for students, school
    staff and parents through integrated and innovative programming. Community partners and agencies in the Bow Valley work together to ensure that our students and families are receiving wrap-around support services tailored to
    their individual needs. The program includes tool boxes that assist us in programming and support for students, teachers and parents. These tools boxes can be easily developed and replicated in other school divisions.

  • Canadian Example. The School Referral Council: An Effective Mechanism for Enhancing Success of At Risk
    Elementary Students The Principal of Menisa Elementary with EPSB in Edmonton, Alberta, established the Referral Council over two years ago in conjunction with ESHIP (Edmonton Student health Initiative Partnership) & other government/community agencies. It has proven to be a successful ongoing mental health initiative at the school level. Teachers and parents meet with the
    multidisciplinary Referral Council members several times a year to explore barriers to achievement and strategies to mitigate
    them. The purpose of this group is to provide wrap-around service to high priority individuals and/or situations at Menisa.
    With the involvement of parents and teachers the Referral Council has been of considerable benefit to individual students in the classroom & the larger school setting.
Screening

Essex, Marilyn J.;Kraemer, Helena C.;
Slattery, Marcia J.;Burk, Linnea R.;Boyce, W. Thomas;Woodward, Hermi R.;Kupfer, David J. (2009) Screening for Childhood Mental Health Problems: Outcomes and Early Identification Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, v50 n5 p562-570 May 2009

Scholte, Evert M.;Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina;
Van der Ploeg, Jan D.(2008) A Rating Scale to Screen Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders in Children European Journal of Special Needs Education, v23 n1 p47-62 Feb 2008

Eppler, Christie;Weir, Sarah (2009)
Family Assessment in K-12 Settings: Understanding Family Systems to Provide Effective, Collaborative Services Psychology in the Schools, v46 n6 p501-514 Jul 2009

Weist MD, Rubin M, Moore E, Adelsheim S, Wrobel G.
Mental health screening in schools. J Sch Health 2007;77(2):53-8

Warnick, E.M., Bracken, M.B., Kasl, S. (2008)
Screening efficiency of the child behavior checklist and strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A systematic review Child and Adolescent Mental Health Vol 13, 3, 140-47

Spreckley,M., Boyd,R. (2009)
Efficacy of applied behavioral intervention in preschool children with autism for improving cognitive, language, and adaptive behavior: A systematic review and meta-analysis The Journal of Pediatrics Vol 154, 3, 338-44

McMillan, D., Gilbody, S., Beresford, E., Neilly, L. (2007)
Can we predict suicide and non-fatal self-harm with the Beck Hopelessness Scale? A meta-analysis Psychological Medicine Vol37, 769-778

Chartier M, Stoep AV, McCauley E, Herting JR, Tracy M, Lymp J. (2008)
Passive versus active parental permission: implications for the ability of school-based depression screening to reach youth at risk. J Sch Health 2008;78(3):157-64

Hallfors, D., Brodish, P.H., Khatapoush, S., Sanchez, V., Cho, H., & Steckler, A. (2006). Feasibility of screening adolescents for suicide risk in “real world” high school settings. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 282-287

Pignone, M., Gaynes, B.N., Rushton, J.L., et al. (2002). Screening for depression: Systematic evidence review no. 6. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Williams, S. B., O'Connor, E. A., Eder, M. Whitlock, E. P. (2009). Screening for Child and Adolescent Depression in Primary Care Settings: A Systematic Evidence Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics ,123, e716-e735

  • Teenscreen (Identified by NREPP) The Columbia University TeenScreen Program identifies middle school- and high school-aged youth in need of mental health services due to risk for suicide and undetected mental illness. The screening involves the following stages: 1. Before any screening is conducted; parents' active written consent is required for school-based screening sites. Teens must also agree to the screening. 2. Each teen completes a 10-minute paper-and-pencil or computerized questionnaire covering anxiety, depression, substance and alcohol abuse, and suicidal thoughts and behavior. 3. Teens whose responses indicate risk for suicide or other mental health needs participate in a brief clinical interview with an on-site mental health professional. If the clinician determines the symptoms warrant a referral for an in-depth mental health evaluation, parents are notified and offered assistance with finding appropriate services in the community. Teens whose responses do not indicate need for clinical services receive an individualized debriefing.(Described by CSMH, U of Maryland)

  • Canadian Example: in collaboration with community agencies the Limestone District School Board has established a protocol related to risk/threat assessment. In this board every school has a multidisciplinary risk/threat assessment team that is comprised of school administration, school-based counsellors, board resource staff (Behaviour Action Team) and community partners (police, Crown Attorney’s Office, Hotel Dieu Child and Adolescent Unit psychiatrists and mental health agencies). The team assesses the level of risk/threat in a situation and creates a collaborative intervention plan for the student, expediting supports from the hospital and community based mental health agencies.
Brief Counselling/Interventions

Abrams, D. B., & Clayton, R. R. (2001). Transdisciplinary research to improve brief interventions for addictive behaviors. In P. M. Monti, S. M. Colby & T. A. O'Leary (Eds.), Adolescents, alcohol, and substance abuse: Reaching teens through brief interventions. New York: The Guilford Press
  • Drugs and Alcohol Podcast (Identified by Health Promoting Schools, National Health Service, Scotland) The Drugs and Alcohol Podcast has been produced to help provide young people with advice and information as they move into adulthood. It is one of a series on the Independent Living Podcast website with others on the themes of careers and housing. The Drugs and Alcohol Podcast takes the form of an interview with workers from the Clued Up drugs awareness project based in Kirkcaldy, Fife, and contains useful information about the dangers, causes and effects of drugs and alcohol. It also outlines other issues including sexual health, mental health, homelessness, self-esteem and confidence, and peer pressure, and their relationship with alcohol and drugs. The podcast is suitable for upper primary and secondary pupils.
  • Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral, and Treatment (SBIRT) (Published by SAMHSA, United States) SBIRT is a comprehensive, integrated, public health approach to the delivery of early intervention and treatment services for persons with or at risk for substance use disorders.
Student Assistance Programs
  • The Power of Support (National Youth in Care Network, Canada) A how-to resource for the adults who support youth in care groups and networks, complete with stories and case studies of adult involvement in youth in care networks.
  • Adolescent Service (CAMH, Ontario, Canada) The Adolescent Service works with youth aged 12 to 18 involved with the legal system or who have other legal issues. We also work with youth who have problems with behaviour such as anger, aggression or sexual misconduct.
  • Student Assistance Program (Kamloops School District, British Columbia, Canada) This multiple support program for students promotes teacher uptake of substance use education, alternatives to suspension program in partnership with local the addiction services agency.
  • Better Behaviours Service (CAMH, Ontario, Canada) Children and youth referred to BBS may be fighting, breaking rules, having difficulties in friendships, falling behind academically or having problems negotiating adult expectations. Problems are serious enough to be noticed at home, at school, with peers or in the community.
School-based Support during Treatment, Hospitalization or Incarceration/ Coordination of Case with School

Armbruster P, Andrews E, Couenhoven J, et al. Collision or collaboration? School-based health services meet managed care
. Clinical Psychology Review 1999; 19 (2):179-198.

Armbruster P, Gerstein SH, Fallan T. Bridging the gap between service need and service utilization: A school-based mental health program.
Community Mental Health Journal 1997; 33(3):199-211.

Calgary Board of Education.
Supporting students with severe internalizing mental health disorders. CBE, 2005. http://www.cbe.ab.ca/programs/spec_ed/se-mental.asp

Burns B, Hoagwood K, Mrazek P. Effective treatment for mental disorders in children and adolescents. Clinical
Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev

Johns S. Young people, schools and mental health services: intervention or prevention? In: Rowling L, Martin G, Walker L, editors. Mental health promotion concepts and practice young people. Australia:
McGraw-Hill, 2002. 41-55.

Burns B, Costello EJ, Angold A, Tweed D. Children’s Mental health service use across service sectors.
Health Affairs,
1995; 14:147-159.

Conoley JC, Conoley CW. Collaboration for child adjustment: Issues for school- and clinic-based child psychologists. Special section: Clinical child psychology: Perspectives on adolescent therapy. J Consul Clin Psychol 1991; 59(6):821-829.

Spiranovic, Caroline;Briggs, Kate;Kirkby, Kenneth;Mobsby, Caroline;Daniels, Brett (2008)
Yshareit: A Project Promoting the Use of E-Mental Health Resources among Young People Youth Studies Australia, v27 n2 p52-60 Jun 2008

Wade, Darryl;Johnston, Amy;Campbell, Bronwyn;Littlefield, Lyn
Practice Parameter on the Use of Psychotropic Medication in Children and Adolescents Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, v48 n9 p961 Sep 2009

Trout, Alexandra L.;Hagaman, Jessica L.;Chmelka, M. Beth;Gehringer, Robert;
Epstein, Michael H.;Reid, Robert (2008) The Academic, Behavioral, and Mental Health Status of Children and Youth at Entry to Residential Care
Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, v25 n4 p359-374 2008
Ziguras, S.J., Stuart, G.W (2000) A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mental health case management over 20 years Psychiatric Services Vol 51, 11, 1410-21

Weisz,J.R., McCarty,C.A., Valeri,S.M. (2006)
Effects of psychotherapy for depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis Psychological Bulletin Vol 132, 1, 132-149

Lincoln, T.M., Wilhelm, K., Nestoriuc, Y (2007)
Effectiveness of psychoeducation for relapse, symptoms, knowledge, adherence and functioning in psychotic disorders: A meta-analysis Schizophrenia Research Vol 96, 1-3, 232-45

Simonds JF.
School mental health case consultation: program description and follow-up study. J Sch Health 1973;43(9):557-61

Reutzel TJ, Desai A, Workman G, Atkin JA, Grady S, Todd T, et al.
Medication management in primary and secondary schools: evaluation of mental health related in-service education in local schools. J Sch Nurs 2008;24(4):239-48.
Weist, M.D., Rubin, M., Moore, E., Adelsheim, S., & Wrobel, G. (2007). Mental health screening in schools. Journal of School Health, 77, 53-58
  • Who Will Teach Me To Learn: Creating Positive School Experiences for Youth In Care (National Youth in Care Network) One of the first steps in understanding how to support youth in care throughout their high school education.

  • Roles of Education personnel in the delivery of services to students with special needs (Gov't of Newfoundland, Education Ministry)

  • Model for the Coordination of Services to Students with Special Needs (Government of Newfoundland) The Departments of Education, Health and Community Services, Human Resources, Labour and Employment, and Justice partners in the Model for the Coordination of Services to Children and Youth with Special Needs. The Model provides a framework whereby partner departments and their respective agencies can provide coordinated supports and services to children and youth in the province.
  • In-Home Family-Focused Reunification The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of family preservation services (i.e. family reunification services) provided by the Utah Department of Human Services to reunify families separated by the placement of a child in out-of-home care in Utah, USA. The following services were provided to intervention families: concrete services provided include transportation, cash assistance, clothing, basic food items, house hold repairs; skills training provided include communication, parenting, anger management, conflict resolution, self-esteem etc. The services were provided to both parents and the child. The families in the control group received services such as mental health counselling and parenting skills training in order to create a safe environment for the child’s return to home. (Identified by the Canadian Best Practices Portal)

  • Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) is a comprehensive and multisystemic family-based outpatient or partial hospitalization (day treatment) program for substance-abusing adolescents, adolescents with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders, and those at high risk for continued substance abuse and other problem behaviors such as conduct disorder and delinquency. Working with the individual youth and his or her family, MDFT helps the youth develop more effective coping and problem-solving skills.(Identified by SAMHSA)
  • The Child, Youth and Family Program (CAMH, Ontario, Canada) CAMH offers a broad range of programs is committed to client-centred care, providing intensive and specialized services for young people with mental health and/or addiction problems. We provide: comprehensive assessments; medication consultations; individual and family therapy, specialized treatment groups for children and youth who have problems with mental health, substance use and/or other addictions; day treatment and school programs; Classroom Assessment and Treatment for Children’s Health (CATCH), for children with disruptive behaviour disorders, Recovery and Education for Adolescents Choosing Health (REACH), for youth who have addiction problems with or without a concurrent mental health concern, parenting programs offering information, education and support, prevention services, including group programs in the community, as well as information and education sessions and consultation on diagnostic and treatment issues for primary care physicians and other health care professionals. CAMH also offers several outpatient services, each staffed by a team of health care professionals. They are: Adolescent Service, Better Behaviours Service, Gender Identity Service, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Service, Psychiatric Consultation Service, Psychotic Disorders Service, Substance Abuse Program for Afro-Canadian & Caribbean Youth, The Arson Prevention Program for Children (TAPP-C), Youth Addiction & Concurrent Disorders Service, Youth Outreach Service

  • Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Initiative (Government of Manitoba) The purpose of the provincial Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Initiative (CODI) is to improve service to individuals who have co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. The project is jointly sponsored by the Addictions Foundation of Manitoba (AFM), eleven Regional Health Authorities (RHA’s), and Manitoba Health and Healthy Living.

  • Multisystemic Therapy (MST) for juvenile offenders
    addresses the multidimensional nature of behavior problems in troubled youth. Treatment focuses on those factors in each youth's social network that are contributing to his or her antisocial behavior. The primary goals of MST programs are to decrease rates of antisocial behavior and other clinical problems, improve functioning (e.g., family relations, school performance), and achieve these outcomes at a cost savings (Identifed by SAMHSA)


  • Multisystemic Therapy With Psychiatric Supports
    (MST-Psychiatric) is designed to treat youth who are at risk for out-of-home placement (in some cases, psychiatric hospitalization) due to serious behavioral problems and co-occurring mental health symptoms such as thought disorder, bipolar affective disorder, depression, anxiety, and impulsivity. Youth receiving MST-Psychiatric typically are between the ages of 9 and 17. The goal of MST-Psychiatric is to improve mental health symptoms, suicidal behaviours and other mental health problems. (Identified by SAMHSA)


  • The Youth Drug Stabilization (Support for Parents) Act
    (Government of Manitoba) provides a way to access involuntary detention and short-term stabilization for young Manitobans under 18 years of age. However, the act is intended as a last resort, when other measures have been unsuccessful and where a youth is causing serious self-harm through severe, persistent substance abuse. The purpose of the stabilization period is to provide a safe, secure environment to engage the youth and develop a treatment plan that he or she will follow after discharge. The stabilization period is seven days, after which the youth can leave the facility. Treatment after discharge is not mandatory and can be refused by then youth.


  • The Child, Youth and Family Program (CAMH, Ontario, Canada) CAMH offers a broad range of programs is committed to client-centred care, providing intensive and specialized services for young people with mental health and/or addiction problems. We provide: comprehensive assessments; medication consultations; individual and family therapy, specialized treatment groups for children and youth who have problems with mental health, substance use and/or other addictions; day treatment and school programs; Classroom Assessment and Treatment for Children’s Health (CATCH), for children with disruptive behaviour disorders, Recovery and Education for Adolescents Choosing Health (REACH), for youth who have addiction problems with or without a concurrent mental health concern, parenting programs offering information, education and support, prevention services, including group programs in the community, as well as information and education sessions and consultation on diagnostic and treatment issues for primary care physicians and other health care professionals. CAMH also offer several outpatient services, each staffed by a team of health care professionals. They are: Adolescent Service, Better Behaviours Service, Gender Identity Service, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Service, Psychiatric Consultation Service, Psychotic Disorders Service, Substance Abuse Program for Afro-Canadian & Caribbean Youth, The Arson Prevention Program for Children (TAPP-C), Youth Addiction & Concurrent Disorders Service, Youth Outreach Service

  • Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Initiative (Government of Manitoba) The purpose of the provincial Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Initiative (CODI) is to improve service to individuals who have co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. The project is jointly sponsored by the Addictions Foundation of Manitoba (AFM), eleven Regional Health Authorities (RHA’s), and Manitoba Health and Healthy Living.
  • The Youth Treatment Program (Government of New Brunswick) This coordinated service delivery model seeks to respond effectively to young people with severe behavioural problems throughout New Brunswick. The program is delivered by multidisciplinary regional teams that support the primary workers. If need be, those teams can make use of the provincial consultation and assessment service at the Pierre Caissie Centre in Moncton.
  • Systems of Care (Published by SAMHSA, United States) Systems of Care is an approach to mental health services that recognizes the importance of family, school and community. It seeks to promote the full potential of every child and youth by addressing their physical, emotional, intellectual, cultural and social needs.
  • Guidelines on the Confidentiality of Student Health Records(American School Health Association) In 1997 ASHA convened a National Task Force on Confidential Student Health Information supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Adolescent and School Health. In 2000 the Task Force released Guidelines for Protecting Confidential Student Health Information, a tool that provided a basic framework for safeguarding student health records.

  • Canadian Example: The COMPASS initiative, York Region School Board. The school board and mental health partners work together to create support structures for students with mental needs within their educational settings, families and community. Within the York Region District School Board, the Intervention Teams are specialized teams that consist of school board and mental health agency staff who work collaboratively together to support students with mental health needs. The teams work in a comprehensive way providing support to the students themselves, their families, and the school staff who work with the student in the school setting. The core members of the team are special education teachers, intervention assistants and mental health social workers. The teachers and intervention assistants are school board staff while the social workers are agency staff integrated into the Intervention Teams from a COMPASS partnered mental health agency. This team is supported by a secondary layer of consulting staff who include school board psychologists, student service coordinators, special education consultants and COMPASS Clinical supervisors and managers.
    The teams utilize a case management approach and aim to work within a capacity building context so that schools are left
    better equipped to support students with mental health needs. See and hear a recorded webinar on the COMPASS program

  • Canadian Example. Waterloo Region District School Board, located in southwestern Ontario, is a mixed urban/rural school board serving over 60 000 students. The school board provides a multi-faceted approach to delivering mental health supports for students as early as upon entry into Junior Kindergarten and throughout their school career. These supports include specialized programming, partnerships with community agencies, and wrap-around programs to support families.
School Support for reintegration

Wood, Ralph J.;Wood, Angela R.;Mullins, Daniel T.(2008)
Back to School: Recommendations to Assist Mentally Ill, Post-Incarcerated Youth Return to School Journal of School Health, v78 n9 p514-517 Sep 2008

Kenny, Dianna T.;Lennings, Christopher J.;Nelson, Paul K. (2007)
The Mental Health of Young Offenders Serving Orders in the Community: Implications for Rehabilitation Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, v45 n1-2 p123-148 2007

Cusick, Gretchen Ruth;Goerge, Robert M.;Bell, Katie Claussen (2009) From Corrections to Community: The Juvenile Reentry Experience as Characterized by Multiple Systems Involvement Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago (Report)
  • Critical Time Intervention (CTI) CTI is a time-limited intervention that overlaps the period before and after discharge from the institution to the community. The intervention, involves two components: (1) strengthening the individual's long-term ties to services, family, and friends; and (2) providing emotional and practical support during the transition. Post-discharge services are delivered by workers who have established relationships with patients during their institutional stay. CTI is intended to be used with individuals leaving institutions such as shelters, hospitals, and jails. (Identified by the Canadian Best Practices Portal)

  • Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) is a comprehensive and multisystemic family-based outpatient or partial hospitalization (day treatment) program for substance-abusing adolescents, adolescents with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders, and those at high risk for continued substance abuse and other problem behaviors such as conduct disorder and delinquency. Working with the individual youth and his or her family, MDFT helps the youth develop more effective coping and problem-solving skills. (Identified by SAMHSA)

  • Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) is a community-based intervention for adolescents (12-17 years of age) with severe and chronic delinquency and their families. It was developed as an alternative to group home treatment or State training facilities for youths who have been removed from their home due to conduct and delinquency problems, substance use, and/or involvement with the juvenile justice system. Youths are typically referred to MTFC after previous family preservation efforts (Identified by SAMHSA)

  • The Child, Youth and Family Program (CAMH, Ontario, Canada) CAMH offers a broad range of programs is committed to client-centred care, providing intensive and specialized services for young people with mental health and/or addiction problems. We provide: comprehensive assessments; medication consultations; individual and family therapy, specialized treatment groups for children and youth who have problems with mental health, substance use and/or other addictions; day treatment and school programs; Classroom Assessment and Treatment for Children’s Health (CATCH), for children with disruptive behaviour disorders, Recovery and Education for Adolescents Choosing Health (REACH), for youth who have addiction problems with or without a concurrent mental health concern, parenting programs offering information, education and support, prevention services, including group programs in the community, as well as information and education sessions and consultation on diagnostic and treatment issues for primary care physicians and other health care professionals. CAMH also offers several outpatient services, each staffed by a team of health care professionals. They are: Adolescent Service, Better Behaviours Service, Gender Identity Service, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Service, Psychiatric Consultation Service, Psychotic Disorders Service, Substance Abuse Program for Afro-Canadian & Caribbean Youth, The Arson Prevention Program for Children (TAPP-C), Youth Addiction & Concurrent Disorders Service, Youth Outreach Service

  • Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Initiative (Government of Manitoba) The purpose of the provincial Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Initiative (CODI) is to improve service to individuals who have co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. The project is jointly sponsored by the Addictions Foundation of Manitoba (AFM), eleven Regional Health Authorities (RHA’s), and Manitoba Health and Healthy Living.

  • Taking STEPPS to Creating a Classroom for Students Challenged By Mental Health Concerns The Supportive Transitions for Emotional, Physical, Psychological and Spiritual well-being Program (STEPPS) at St. Elizabeth School in the Edmonton Catholic School District is designed to facilitate transition for students who face challenges in their emotional development. This holistic approach attempts to teach students through mind, body and soul. The STEPPS program can accommodate six to nine students who are having emotional, social and/or behavioural difficulties which are significantly compromising their academic performance. These students have typically received mental health treatment from either a hospital or other tertiary intervention program. This program assists students with their first step back into their community. STEPPS provides the students with a highly structured and supportive environment - within a small class with a low teacherstudent ratio and a staff trained in therapeutic techniques. This is done through a combination of consistent behavioural, emotional and social intervention, with therapeutic and academic services specifically tailored to the individual student’s needs. Students and their families also have access to the services of a psychiatric nurse. This preventative mental-health classroom is a joint venture between Alberta Health and Edmonton Catholic Schools.



School Support, Teacher Cooperation with Parent Support and Family Intervention Programs
  • Strengthening Families for the Future
    Strengthening Families for the Future is a prevention program for families with children between the ages of seven and 11 who may be at risk for substance use problems, depression, violence, delinquency and school failure. Strengthening Families is effective because it involves the whole family. (Identified by the Canadian Best Practices Portal)
  • Parents as Agents of Change
    This intervention aims to treat obese children using the parents as agents of the change. During the parent support and educational group sessions, participants discuss the following topics: limits of responsibilities, nutrition education, eating behaviour modification, cognitive restructuring, parental modeling, problem solving, and how to create opportunities for physical activity, decrease stimulus exposure, decrease the fat content in the family’s diet, and cope with resistance. All suggested changes are intended for the entire family. (Identified by the Canadian Best Practices Portal

  • The Adolescent Transitions Program (ATP) is a parent training program developed by Dishion and Kavanagh (in press) as a selected intervention for at risk early adolescents. The parent-focused curriculum is based on family management skills of encouragement, limit setting and supervision, problem solving, and improved family relationship and communication patterns. (Identified by Strengthening Families Program)
School Health Clinics/Clinics Near Schools

Brown, Michael B.;Bolen, Larry M. (2007)
The School-Based Health Center as a Resource for Prevention and Health Promotion Psychology in the Schools, v45 n1 p28-38 Dec 2007

Weist, M., Goldstein, A., Morris, L. & Bryant, T. (2003).
Integrating expanded school mental health programs and school-based health centers. Psychology in the Schools, 40 (3), 297–308.

Adelman HS. Restructuring education support services & integrating community resources: Beyond the full service school model.
School Psych Review 1996; 25(4):431-445.

Adelman HS, Taylor L. Mental health facets of the school-based health center movement: Need and opportunity for research and development.
J Ment Health Adm 1991; 18(3):272-283.

Adelson SL. Psychiatric public health opportunities in school-based health centers. Adolescent psychiatry: Development and clinical studies. A
nnals of the American Society for Adolescent Psychiatry 1999; 24:75-89.

Armbruster P. The administration of school-based mental health services.
Child & Adolescent Psych. Clinics of N. Am,2002; 11(1):23-41.

Armbruster P, Lichtman J. Are school based mental health services effective? Evidence from 36 inner city schools.
Community Mental Health Journal. 1999; 35(6):493-504.

Armbruster P, Andrews E, Couenhoven J, et al. Collision or collaboration? School-based health services meet managed care
. Clinical Psychology Review 1999; 19 (2):179-198.

Harold RD, Harold, NB. School-based clinics: a response to the physical and mental health needs of adolescents.
Health & Social Work 1993; 18(1):65-74.

Jepson L, Juszczak L, Fisher M. Mental health care in a high school-based health service.
Adolescence 1998; 33(129):1-15.

Juszczak L, Melinkovich P, Kaplan D. Use of health and mental health services by adolescents across multiple delivery sites.
J Adolesc Health.

Leaf JP, Alegria M, Cohen P, et al. Mental health service use in the community and schools: results from the Four-Community MECA Study.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996; 37(7):889-897.

Newton-Logsdon G, Armstrong MI. School-based mental health services.
Soc Work Educ 1993; 15(3):187-191

Pastore DR, Techow B. Adolescent school-based health care: a description of two sites in their 20th year of services.
Mt Sinai J Med. 2004 May; 71(3):191-6.

Starr R (Ed). School-Based Health Center Mental Health Work Group. Final Report. New York State Department of Health School Health Program. 2001.


Weist MD, Paskewitz DA, Warner BS, et al. Treatment outcome of school-based mental health services for urban teenagers.
Community Ment Health J 1996; 32(2):149-57

Eisen M, Palletto C, Bradner C. Problem behavior prevention and school-based health centers: Programs and prospects. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 1999


Lever NA, Stephan SH, Axelrod J, Weist MD.
Fee-for-service revenue for school mental health through a partnership with an outpatient mental health center. J Sch Health 2004;74(3):91-4
Santor, D. A., Poulin, C. Leblanc, J. Kususmakar, V., (2006). Evaluating Effectiveness of School Based Health Centers: Facilitating the Early Detection of Mental Health Difficulties. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39, 729–735
Weist, M.D., Goldstein, A., Morris, L., & Bryant, T. (2003). Integrating expanded school mental health programs and school-based health centers. Psychology in the Schools, 40, 297-308
  • · From the Margins to the Mainstream: Institutionalizing School-Based Health Centers (June 2000) Fifteen years ago, the notion of making health services more accessible to children by placing them in schools was a revolutionary idea known only to a handful of people. In 1985, with no more than 50 school-based health centers across the country, it was an intriguing but fragile concept. Today, more than 1,200 centers are found in 45 states and the District of Columbia. Thirty-six states provide grant support.1 Forty-three states permit school-based health centers to bill Medicaid for patient care, and centers in twenty-two states are providers in Medicaid managed care networks. These developments mark the transition of school-based health centers from the margins to the mainstream of the American health care system.
Educational Programs and IEP’s for Students with Disorders

Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J.;Franks, Robert P.;
Plant, Robert;Cloud, Marilyn;Tebes, Jacob Kraemer (2009) Extended Day Treatment: A Comprehensive Model of after School Behavioral Health Services for Youth Child & Youth Care Forum, v38 n1 p5-18 Feb 2009

Hart, Angie;Blincow, Derek (2008)
Resilient Therapy: Strategic Therapeutic Engagement with Children in Crisis
Child Care in Practice, v14 n2 p131-145 Apr 2008
Vernon, McCay;Leigh, Irene W. (2007) Mental Health Services for People Who Are Deaf American Annals of the Deaf, v152 n4 p374-381 Fall 2007

Landsverk, John A.;Burns, Barbara J.;Stambaugh, Leyla Faw;Rolls Reutz, Jennifer A. (2009)
Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care: Review of Research Literature Child Welfare, v88 n1 p49-69 2009


Crisis Response Services for School/Students Following a Trauma

Kataoka, Sheryl;Stein, Bradley D.;Nadeem, Erum;Wong, Marleen (2007)
Who Gets Care? Mental Health Service Use Following a School-Based Suicide Prevention Program Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, v46 n10 p1341 Oct 2007

Role of School Psychologist, Mental Health Agencies, Hospitals

Adelman HS. Clinical psychology: Beyond psychopathology and clinical interventions.
Clin Psychol: Sci and Practice 1995; 2(1):28-44.

Kubiszyn T. Integrating health and mental health services in schools: Psychologists collaborating with primary care providers.
Clinical Psychology Review 1999; 19(2):179-98.

Shannon, Deborah;Posada, Susan (2007)
The Educational Psychologist in the Early Years: Current Practice and Future Directions Educational Psychology in Practice, v23 n3 p257-272 Sep 2007

Rothi, Despina M.;Leavey, Gerard;Best, Ron (2008) R
ecognising and Managing Pupils with Mental Health Difficulties: Teachers' Views and Experiences on Working with Educational Psychologists in Schools Pastoral Care in Education, v26 n3 p127-142 Sep 2008

Burrow-Sanchez, Jason;Call, Megan E.;Adolphson, S. Lillian;Hawken, Leanne S.(2009)
School Psychologists' Perceived Competence and Training Needs for Student Substance Abuse Journal of School Health, v79 n6 p269-276 Jun 2009

Decker, Scott L. (2008)
School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders Psychology in the Schools, v45 n9 p799-811 Nov 2008

Tysinger, P. Dawn;Tysinger, Jeffrey A.;Diamanduros, Terry (2009)
Teacher Expectations on the Directiveness Continuum in Consultation Psychology in the Schools, v46 n4 p319-332 Apr 2009

Friedberg, Robert D.;Gorman, Angela A.;
Beidel, Deborah C.Training Psychologists for Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Raw World: A Rubric for Supervisors Behavior Modification, v33 n1 p104-123 2009
(2009)
Wood, Jeffrey J.;Chiu, Angela W.;Hwang, Wei-Chin;Jacobs, Jeffrey;Ifekwunigwe, Muriel (2008) Adapting Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Mexican American Students with Anxiety Disorders: Recommendations for School Psychologists School Psychology Quarterly, v23 n4 p515-532 Dec 2008

Williams, Robert B.;French, Laurence A.(2007)
Psychology's Role in Inclusive Education: Observations from New Brunswicks's Recent Review of Inclusion Online Submission, Paper prepared for the Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association (68th, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Jun 7-9, 2007)

Diamanduros, Terry;Downs, Elizabeth;Jenkins, Stephen J.(2008)
The Role of School Psychologists in the Assessment, Prevention, and Intervention of Cyberbullying Psychology in the Schools, v45 n8 p693-704 Sep 2008

Gersch, Irvine (2009)
A Positive Future for Educational Psychology--If the Profession Gets It Right Educational Psychology in Practice, v25 n1 p9-19 Mar 2009

Edwards, D., Hannigan, B., Fothergill, A., Burnard, P. (2002)
Stress management for mental health professionals: A review of effective techniques Stress and Health 18, 203-15

Grenard, J.L., Ames, S.L., Pentz, M.A., Sussman, S. (2006)
Motivational interviewing with adolescents and young adults for drug-related problems International Journal of Adolescent Medicine & HealthVol 18, 1, 53-67
Romualdi, V. & Sandoval, J. ( 1995) Comprehensive school-linked services: Implications for school psychologist. Psychology in the Schools, 32, 306-317

Role of Paediatrician, Family Physician, Health Authority

Horwitz SM, Leaf PJ, Leventhal JM, et al. Identification and management of psychosocial and developmental problems in community-based, primary care pediatric practices. Pediatrics 1992; 89(3):480-485.

Elias MJ, Kress JS, Gager PJ, Hancock ME.
Adolescent health promotion and risk reduction: cementing the social contract between pediatricians and the schools. Bull N Y Acad Med 1994;71(1):87-110


Role of School Social Worker, Child Protection Agencies

Openshaw, Linda (2007) .
Social Work in Schools: Principles and Practice Textbook

Vulin-Reynolds M, Lever N, Stephan S and Ghunney A (2008)School Mental Health and Foster Care: A Logical Partnership
Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, Vol 1, Issue 2, 29-40

Hoagwood, K.E. (2005)
Family-based services in children's mental health: A research review and synthesis Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines Vol 46, 7, 690-713

Clausson E, Berg A.
Family intervention sessions: one useful way to improve schoolchildren's mental health. J Fam Nurs 2008;14(3):289-313
Brener, N.D., Weist, M., Adelman, H., Taylor, L., Vernon-Smiley, M. (2007). Mental health and social services: Results from the school health policies and programs study 2006. Journal of School Health, 77, 486-499


Role of Public Health Nurse, Health Unit/Clinic, Health Authority

Adelman HS, Taylor L, Bradley B, Lewis KD. Mental health in schools: expanded opportunities for school nurses.
J Sch Nursing. 1997; 13(3):6-12.

Hames, Annette;Carlson, Tracy (2006)
Are Primary Health Care Staff Aware of the Role of Community Learning Disability Teams in Relation to Health Promotion and Health Facilitation? British Journal of Learning Disabilities, v34 n1 p6-10 Mar 2006

Hootman J, Houck GM, King MC.
A program to educate school nurses about mental health interventions. J Sch Nurs 2002;18(4):191-5.

Desocio J, Stember L, Schrinsky J. (2006)
Teaching children about mental health and illness: a school nurse health education program. J Sch Nurs 2006;22(2):81-6

Chipman M, Gooch P.
Community school nurses and mental health support: a service evaluation. Paediatr Nurs 2003;15(3):33-5

  • Canadian Example: Avon-Maitland District School Board reported that they work in partnership with the Perth District Health Unit so that school-based public health nurses provide consultation and services to nearly all Perth County schools, up to one day per week. They indicated that 77 percent of referrals are related to student mental health issues. In addition, a partnership with the Huron-Perth Centre for Child and Youth allows for the presence of a child and youth worker in some secondary schools in Huron County.
Role of School Guidance Counsellor, School Board Student Services

Israelashvili M, Ishu Ishiyama F (2008)Positive and Negative Emotions Related to Seeking Help from a School Counselor
Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, Vol 1, Issue 4, 5-13

Burrow-Sanchez, Jason J.;Lopez, Adriana L.;Slagle, Clark P. (2008)
Perceived Competence in Addressing Student Substance Abuse: A National Survey of Middle School Counselors Journal of School Health, v78 n5 p280-286 May 2008

Mireau, Ruth;Inch, Roxanne (2009)
Brief Solution-Focused Counseling: A Practical Effective Strategy for Dealing with Wait Lists in Community-Based Mental Health Services Social Work, v54 n1 p63-70 2009

Kittles, Michelle;Atkinson, Cathy (2009)
The Usefulness of Motivational Interviewing as a Consultation and Assessment Tool for Working with Young People Pastoral Care in Education, v27 n3 p241-254 Sep 2009

King KA, Smith J.
Project SOAR: a training program to increase school counselors' knowledge and confidence regarding suicide prevention and intervention. J Sch Health 2000;70(10):402-7.

  • The Implementation and Evaluation of Comprehensive School Guidance Programs in the United States: Progress and Prospects International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance Volume 1, Number 3 / October, 2001The evolution of guidance in the schools of the United States from a position to a service to a program is described. Then the prevailing structure for guidance, the comprehensive guidance program is presented. This section of the article provides a brief overview of the basic elements of the program. Finally, the article closes with discussion of guidance program evaluation as well as presents the results of several studies that offer evidence of the impact of guidance programs. This revised version was published online in August 2006.
Role of Pastoral Care Worker


Role of Police Officer, Police Department


Role of Classroom Teacher, Principal, School Board in referral and support

Rothi, Despina M.;Leavey, Gerard;
Best, Ron (2008) On the Front-Line: Teachers as Active Observers of Pupils' Mental Health Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, v24 n5 p1217-1231 Jul 2008

Moor, Stephanie;Maguire, Ann;McQueen, Hester;
Wells, J. Elisabeth;Elton, Robert;Wrate, Robert;Blair, Caroline (2007) Improving the Recognition of Depression in Adolescence: Can We Teach the Teachers? Journal of Adolescence, v30 n1 p81-95 Feb 2007

Walter, Heather J.;Gouze, Karen;
Lim, Karen G. (2006) Teachers' Beliefs about Mental Health Needs in Inner City Elementary Schools Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, v45 n1 p61 Jan 2006

Hall B, Hall D.
Teacher knows best. Ment Health Today 2007;25-7


Role of Trained Peer Helpers



E-4 Social Support Interventions

Research

Reports/Resources

General


Hogan, B.E., Linden, W., Najarian, B. (2002)
Social support interventions: Do they work? Clinical Psychology Review vol 22, 3, 383-42
School Rules/Discipline Procedures

Whole School Climate Programs

  • Caring School Community (Reviewed by SAMHSA February 2008) Caring School Community (CSC), formerly called the Child Development Project, is a universal elementary school (K-6) improvement program aimed at promoting positive youth development. The program is designed to create a caring school environment characterized by kind and supportive relationships and collaboration among students, staff, and parents. The CSC model is consistent with research-based practices for increasing student achievement as well as the theoretical and empirical literature supporting the benefits of a caring classroom community in meeting students' needs for emotional and physical safety, supportive relationships, autonomy, and sense of competence. By creating a caring school community, the program seeks to promote prosocial values, increase academic motivation and achievement, and prevent drug use, violence, and delinquency. CSC has four components designed to be implemented over the course of the school year: (1) Class Meeting Lessons, which provide teachers and students with a forum to get to know one another and make decisions that affect classroom climate; (2) Cross-Age Buddies, which help build caring cross-age relationships; (3) Homeside Activities, which foster communication at home and link school learning with home experiences and perspectives; and (4) Schoolwide Community-Building Activities, which link students, parents, teachers, and other adults in the school. Schoolwide implementation of CSC is recommended because the program builds connections beyond the classroom.

  • School Connectedness and Meaningful Student Participation (US Department of Education) This recorded workshop includes tips, tools, and resources you can use to understand and promote school connectedness programs in schools and districts.
Anti-stigma Programs, Campaigns and Awareness (aimed at Mental Health and Mental Illness)

Schachter, H.M., Girardi, A., Ly, M., Lacroix, D., Lumb, A.B., Van Berkom, J., et al (2008) Effects of school-based interventions on mental health stigmatization: A systematic review Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health Vol 2, 18
School-based Stigma Awareness Campaigns
  • Breaking the Silence (BTS) (American, Identified by SAMHSA) Breaking the Silence (BTS) is a nationwide educational program. Lesson plans, games, and posters for upper elementary, middle and high school classrooms educate students about the facts and myths of mental illness, teach tolerance, and promote early treatment. BTS explains the causes, symptoms, and warning signs of mental illness, and what a person can do to overcome the stigma and help others.
  • Active Minds On Campus (American, Identified by SAMHSA) Active Minds is a student-run program that addresses the stigma surrounding mental illness among college students. Started in 2001 at the University of Pennsylvania, Active Minds has worked to expose and reduce stigma associated with mental illness within increasingly judgmental college environments. Active Minds, Inc., located in Washington, DC, is the national headquarters for all Active Minds on Campus chapters. This program could be adapted for senior secondary schools.
  • In Our Own Voice (American, Identified by SAMHSA) In Our Own Voice (IOOV) is a unique informational outreach program, developed by the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), that offers insight into the recovery that is possible for people with severe mental illnesses. The program aims to meet the need for consumer-run education initiatives, to set a standard for quality education about mental illness from those who have been there, to offer genuine work opportunities for consumers, to encourage self-confidence and self-esteem in presenters, and to focus on recovery and the message of hope. Target audiences include: consumers, families, students, law enforcement personnel, mental health service providers, professionals, faith communities, and all people wanting to learn about mental illnesses.
  • Nothing to Hide (American, Identified by SAMHSA) Nothing To Hide: Mental Illness in the Family is a touring photo exhibit that was developed by the Family Diversity Project, a nonprofit educational organization based in Amherst, MA. The exhibit, which debuted in 19992000, presents a collection of 20 museum-quality photographs and the text of interviews that tell poignant stories of courageous individuals and their families whose lives are affected by mental illness. The exhibit also is available in book form, featuring portraits and stories of 44 families who defy the stigma of mental illness by speaking candidly about their lives.
Community-based Anti-Stigma Campaigns that could include Schools
  • Opening Minds (Canadian, Mental Health Commission of Canada The Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC) will be carrying out a 10-year Anti-stigma / Anti-discrimination Initiative. This campaign will be the largest systematic effort to reduce the stigma of mental illness in Canadian history. It is much-needed and long overdue. In the first year, MHCC has chosen to target two specific groups:
  • Youth aged (12 to 18) - early intervention can make an enormous difference over a lifetime. For more than 70% of adults living with mental illness, symptoms developed before they were 18 years old.
  • Health care professionals - the medical front lines eg, doctors, nurses and Emergency Room receptions, are where people seeking help say they experience some of the most deeply felt stigma and discrimination
  • 1 de cada 4 (1 in 4) Spanish, Identified by SAMHSA) Developed in Andalusia, Spain, in September 2007, 1 de cada 4 (1 in 4 in English) is a campaign to increase public awareness of mental illnesses in order to reduce the stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental illness. (Identified by SAMSHA)
  • Dare to Dream (Canadian, Identified by SAMHSA) The Dare to Dream program engages youths in mental health issues in meaningful and creative ways by providing them with the opportunity to raise awareness about mental health in their communities.
  • iFred's Field of Hope The International Foundation for Research and Education on Depression (iFred) kicked off a program to eliminate the stigma of depression with the launch of the Field of Hope campaign in Goodland, KS, during the Spring of 2006. A sunflower field was planted to celebrate those who have recognized, received treatment for, or survived their depression, as well as those who have loved ones affected by depression.
  • Iris the Dragon Book Series (Canadian, Identified by SAMHSA) The series consists of illustrated children’s books and educational resources that deal with the topic of children’s mental health. The series helps children and caregivers understand that early detection, risk management, and education can help alleviate, if not prevent, mental illness in children and reaffirm the message that mental illness in children exists, is increasing, and needs to be better understood. The Iris the Dragon book series is also supplemented by an in depth Web site, www.iristhedragon.com, which provides information on the book series, lesson plans for educators, information on other complementary Iris the Dragon programs, and other mental health related resources in Canada.
  • Mental Illness is Real (Australian, Identified by SAMSHA) Mental Illness Is Real is a national media campaign that was launched in Australia in 2005 by SANE Australia. The campaign aims to overcome community stigma and misunderstanding about mental illnesses by challenging the stereotypes that exist. The campaign hopes to educate the public by directing people to get real facts via the SANE Web site and the SANE toll-free helpline number.
  • Mind (National Association of Mental Health) (Identified by SAMHSA) Mind (National Association for Mental Health) provides information on a national level for England and Wales. Their activities promote the values of autonomy, equality, knowledge, and participation in the community for all people, especially those with mental illnesses. The group actively campaigns to improve the policy and attitudes of governing bodies in the United Kingdom, and has developed highly successful local-level initiatives for consumers of mental health.
  • Movie Monday (Canadian, Identified by SAMHSA) Begun in 1993 by a mental health consumer, Movie Monday is a weekly film series offered in the auditorium of a psychiatric hospital. The series is designed for people with mental illnesses, their families, and the general public. It is supported by donations from moviegoers and agencies such as Vancouver Island Health Authority and Canada Council for the Arts.
  • Open the Doors (Canadian, Identified by SAMHSA) Open the Doors is an international program that was developed by the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) in 1996. Created to fight the stigma and discrimination experienced by people with schizophrenia, the program helps dispel myths and misunderstandings about the nature, causes, and treatment of the illness. Since the programs inception, WPA has generated much-needed action to eliminate prejudice and discrimination, and has seen real improvements in public attitudes toward those who have or have had schizophrenia and toward their families.
  • ReachOut (Canadian, Identified by SAMHSA) In operation since 2005, ReachOut is a program of the British Columbia Schizophrenia Society (BCSS) and the Mind Foundation with funding from BC Partners for Mental Health and Addictions Information. The program provides a concert tour that travels around the province, raising awareness about mental illnesses and reducing the stigma associated with mental illness.
  • SANE StigmaWatch (Australian, Identified by SAMHSA) SANE StigmaWatch, an initiative of the national mental health charity, SANE Australia, monitors the Australian media to ensure accurate and respectful representation of mental illnesses. It does this through monitoring, correcting, and logging media misrepresentation of mental illnesses.
  • Silver Ribbon Coalition (American, Identified by SAMHSA) The Silver Ribbon Coalition was originally founded in 1993 as the Silver Ribbon Campaign for the Brain by Jean Liechty after she had a family experience with schizophrenia. In 2004, the Silver Ribbon Campaign for the Brain was renamed in order to incorporate and represent the combined interests of all individuals who have a brain disorder or disability, including those individuals with mental illnesses. The coalition emphasizes that increasing public awareness will result in improved treatments, eventual cures, and decreased stigma for those with brain disorders and disabilities. She recognized that symbolic campaigns for other stigmatized diseases such as HIV and AIDS had been successful in promoting public support and funding for research. She realized that the creation of an awareness symbol for brain disorders and disabilities could likely have a similar result; therefore, she created the silver ribbon.
  • Stand Up for Mental Health (Canadian, Identified by SAMHSA) Stand Up for Mental Health was initiated in 2004 by Vancouver-based counselor, standup comic, and author David Granirer. Stand Up for Mental Health is a program that teaches people with mental illnesses how to do standup comedy as a way of building confidence and fighting public stigma of mental illness. Their standup acts focus on their life journeys as individuals living with a mental illness.
  • The Kids on the Block, Inc.(American, Identified by SAMHSA) The Kids on the Block (KOB) educational puppet theatre company researches, develops and performs live programs addressing a wide range of topics, including childrens mental health. Founded in 1977, KOB has become a leader in educational programs for children. During performances, puppet characters talk to children with humor, candor, and sensitivity about topics like disability awareness, social concerns, educational differences and medical issues. In the process, they create awareness and understanding in an effective and fun way. Over 42 program topics have been developed and over 1,500 troupes are performing in the U.S. and internationally.
  • With an OPEN mind (Canadian, Identified by SAMHSA) With an OPEN mind is a public education program in the Thunder Bay region of Canada. It aims to reduce myths and misconceptions surrounding mental illness through the shaping of public attitudes so that people with mental illnesses have an improved sense of acceptance, purpose, and freedom in their communities.
  • Canadian Mental Health Association, Montreal Branch My Life – It’s Cool to Talk About It / Ma Vie – C’est pas fou d’en parler! This campaign focuses on youth mental health and is designed to encourage teenagers to talk about mental health concerns and before serious problems arise. The site contains information for educators, parents and students. It provides tools to help high school students understand stress and it's effects, the importance of maintaining their mental health, links to mental health information sites and an online quiz.
Anti-harassment, discrimination Programs, Campaigns, Awareness Support to Counter Discrimination based on Race, Culture, Language, Religion, Ethnicity
  • The Canadian Ethnocultural Council (CEC) - The Canadian Ethnocultural Council (CEC) is a non-profit, non-partisan coalition of national ethnocultural umbrella organizations which, in turn, represent a cross-section of ethnocultural groups across Canada. The CEC's objectives are to ensure the preservation, enhancement and sharing of the cultural heritage of Canadians, the removal of barriers that prevent some Canadians from participating fully and equally in society, the elimination of racism and the preservation of a united Canada.
  • Canadian Race Relations Foundation - The Canadian Race Relations Foundation aims to help bring about a more harmonious Canada that acknowledges its racist past, recognizes the pervasiveness of racism today, and is committed to creating a future in which all Canadians are treated equitably and fairly. The Foundation is committed to building a national framework for the fight against racism in Canadian society. We will shed light on the causes and manifestations of racism; provide independent, outspoken national leadership; and act as a resource and facilitator in the pursuit of equity, fairness, and social justice.
  • Committee on Race Relations and Cross-Cultural Understanding - This committee's central objectives are1) to promote racial equality by participating in a network made up of organizations supporting race relations and cultural diversity practices and activities in order to share research, informational material or expertise and act as a resource to groups interested in developing these capacities 2) to establish, maintain and deliver programs that educate about and promote systemic change in racist and discriminatory organizational practices in the following sectors: media, employment services, education and other institutions 3) to promote positive and effective race relations and cultural diversity practices by assisting community, municipal and provincial programs through active participation, provision of resource materials, collaborations and partnerships.
  • Metropolis - Metropolis is an international forum for comparative research and public policy development about population migration, cultural diversity and the challenges of immigrant integration in cities in Canada and around the world. In Canada, the Metropolis Project is built upon partnerships between all levels of government, academic researchers and community organizations in five Centres of Excellence.
  • Multicultural Canada - The Multicultural Canada Project is an portal gathering together online searchable multicultural Canadian newspapers, local histories, speeches, photographs, letters and oral histories in the original language with vernacular, English, and French interfaces and search engines and interactive educational tools.
School Activities (Extra and Co-Curricular)

Joronen, K., Rankin, S.H., Astedt-Kurki, P. (2008) School-based drama interventions in health promotion for children and adolescents: Systematic review Journal of Advanced Nursing Vol 63, 2, 116-31

Howes A, Farrell P, Kaplan I, Moss S (2003)
The impact of paid adult support on the participation and learning of pupils in mainstream schools. In: Research Evidence in Education Library. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.

  • Talking About Mental Illness (TAMI) (CAMH, Ontario, Canada) TAMI is a program for secondary school students that helps increase awareness about mental illness and the stigma that surrounds it. TAMI consists of a two-hour presentation designed to give students facts about mental illness and allow them to interact with people who have first-hand experience with mental illness.
After School Programs

Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., & Pachan, M. (in press).
A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology

Wilson N, Minkler M, Dasho S, Wallerstein N, Martin AC.
Getting to social action: the Youth Empowerment Strategies (YES!) project. Health Promot Pract 2008;9(4):395-403


Student Friendship Programs


Student Leadership Programs

  • Youth Net/Réseau Ado (YN/RA) Ottawa, Canada This is a bilingual regional mental health promotion and intervention program run by youth, for youth.

  • The New Mentality is a network of people ages 13 to 25 who are engaged as partners in addressing the many systemic issues associated with child and youth mental health in Ontario. Youth are directly affected and should be listened to issues being addressed include the availability of services, the effectiveness of services being provided, and the suitability of the method/style of service delivery for youth as consumers
Peer Helper Programs

Hargreaves, John;Bond, Lyndal;O'Brien, Matt;Forer, Danielle;
Davies, Liz (2008) The PATS Peer Support Program: Prevention/Early Intervention for Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness Youth Studies Australia, v27 n1 p43-51 Mar 2008

Harden,A., Weston,R., Oakley,A. (1999)
A review of the effectiveness and appropriateness of peer delivered health promotion interventions for young people EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.
  • Reconnecting Youth: A Peer Group Approach to Building Life Skills (RY) is a school-based prevention program for students ages 14-19 years that teaches skills to build resiliency against risk factors and control early signs of substance abuse and emotional distress. RY targets youth who demonstrate poor school achievement and high potential for school dropout (Identified by SAMHSA)

  • I Matter- A Look Into Mental Wellness
    At Cardinal Newman Catholic Secondary School, Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic School District there is an exciting new initiative that allows 50 - 60 Peer Mentors to assist the grade 9 Religion Studies teachers in the delivery of three to five lessons on mental wellness (adapted from the Mental Health and High School Guide by the CMHA). Topics include dispelling myths about mental illness, brain chemistry, symptoms of mental unwellness, and resources. The mentors are responsible for small group interaction with the students as an extension of the teacher’s lesson on the particular topic. Peer Mentor training includes attendance at “safe TALK”, a suicide prevention training session delivered by qualified professionals from the Living Works Corporation. Other training sessions include attending a "TAMI" (Talking About Mental Illness) presentation delivered by adults who are successfully coping with mental illness. At a later training session, they are instructed on their specific duties in the classroom with an emphasis on group management and effective communication skills. The lessons are hands-on activities that quickly engage the group of grade 9 students. Each lesson ends with some product created by each group so to leave a visual reminder in the classroom.
Mentoring Programs

DuBois, D.L., Holloway, B.E., Valentine, J.C., Cooper, H. (2002) Effectiveness of mentoring programs for youth: A meta-analytic review American Journal of Community Psychology Vol 30, 2, 157-92
  • Partners Assisting Local Schools (Saint John School District) Is an initiative of School District 8 in Saint John, NB with the local business community and service agencies. It was developed as the result of an identified need in the community, in this case, poverty and all its implications. The focus was to establish a model which would achieve the unique goals of 7 identified schools, but could also be adapted and adopted in other schools both in the district, elsewhere in the province and beyond. Local businesses partner with neighbourhood schools, providing support in the form of volunteers and financial assistance. PALS Partnerships in Saint John, NB are proving that a dedicated school staff and parent group, together with community volunteers and financial support can deliver great changes within any school.
  • Big Brothers Big Sisters of America (Identified by the Center for the Study and Preverntion of Violenhce - University of Colorado) A report in 1991 demonstrates that through BBBSA’s network of nearly 500 agencies across the country, more than 70,000 youth and adults were supervised in one-to-one relationships. BBBSA typically targets youth (aged 6 to 18) from single parent homes. Service delivery is by volunteers who interact regularly with a youth in a one-to-one relationship. Agencies use a case management approach, following through on each case from initial inquiry through closure. The case manager screens applicants, makes and supervises the matches, and closes the matches when eligibility requirements are no longer met or either party decides they can no longer participate fully in the relationship.
Intergenerational Programs


Parent Information Activities

  • Parents as Preventors Workshop (Alcohol-Drug Education Service, British Columbia) This parent-based prevention workshop focuses on empowering parents to build on the two most powerful prevention factors: family connectivity school connectivity The workshop can be delivered by the professional educators of the ADES or by teachers within the school system. The workshop is designed to be delivered in a 2.5 hour session, but is easily be expanded to a half or full-day formats with the insertion of additional interactive activities (provided) and more in-depth focus on program topics.

  • A Family Guide To Keeping Youth Mentally Healthy & Drug Free (Published by SAMHSA, United States) Family Guide is a public education Web site developed to support the efforts of parents and other caring adults to promote mental health and prevent the use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs among 7- to 18-year-olds.
Parent Involvement and Volunteer Programs


Parent Education and Support Programs

Cunningham, Charles E.;Deal, Ken;Rimas, Heather;Buchanan, Don H.;Gold, Michelle;Sdao-Jarvie, Katherine;Boyle, Michael (2008)
Modeling the Information Preferences of Parents of Children with Mental Health Problems: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, v36 n7 p1123-1138 Oct 2008

Dretzke,J., Davenport,C., Frew,E., Barlow,J., Stewart-Brown,S., Bayliss,S., et al. (2009)
The clinical effectiveness of different parenting programmes for children with conduct problems: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health Vol 3, 7
Woolfenden, S.R., Williams, K., Peat, J. (2001) Family and parenting interventions in children and adolescents with conduct disorder and delinquency aged 10-17 Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, 2, Art. No.: CD003015

Nowak,C., Heinrichs,N. (2008)
A comprehensive meta-analysis of Triple P-Positive Parenting Program using hierarchical linear modeling: Effectiveness and moderating variables Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review vol 11, 3, 114-44

Bernazzani, O., Cote, C., Tremblay, R.E. (2001)
Early parent training to prevent disruptive behavior problems and delinquency in children Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science, Vol578, 90-103

Kane, G.A., Wood, V.A., Barlow, J. (2007)
Parenting programmes: A systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research Child: Care, Health and Development, Vol 33, 6, 784-93

Losel, F., Beelmann, A. (2003)
Effects of child skills training in preventing antisocial behaviour: A systematic review of randomized evaluations Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Vol 587, 84-109

Singer, G.H.S., Ethridge, B.L., Aldana, S.I. (2007)
Primary and secondary effects of parenting and stress management interventions for parents of children with developmental disabilities: A meta-analysis Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews vol 31, 4, 357-69

Barlow, J., Coren, E., Stewart-Brown, S. (2002)
Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of parenting programmes in improving maternal psychosocial health British Journal of General Practice Vol 52, 476, 223-33

Barlow, J., Parsons, J., Stewart-Brown, S. (2005)
Preventing emotional and behavioural problems: The effectiveness of parenting programmes with children less than 3 years of age
Child: Care Health and Development, vol 31, 1, 33-42
Barlow, J., Johnston, I., Kendrick, D., Polnay, L., Stewart-Brown, S. (2006) Individual and group-based parenting programmes for the treatment of physical child abuse and neglect Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, 3, Art. No.: CD005463
  • Ten Strategies for involving Parents in Health Promotion (Published by Canadian Association for School Health) There are a variety of evidence-based strategies that schools can use to engage parents in health promotion.

  • Barriers to Parent Involvement in Health Promotion
    (Canadian Association for School Health) The barriers to effective parental participation in school-related health promotion activities has been documented in the education and health promotion literature.
  • A paper (Lesson in Learning) prepared for the Canadian Council on Learning on parenting styles and skills has identified four evaluated programs that have shown positive results.
  • Nobody's Perfect (BC Council for Families-Health Canada) Is a parenting program for families with children from 0-5. Facilitated by trained parenting educators, Nobody's Perfect gives parents a safe place to meet others with young children and share experiences, interests and concerns.
  • My Tween and Me (BC Council for Families) is a parenting program for families with children age 7-12. It is designed to strengthen the confidence and ability of parents to positively influence the lives of their school-aged children, to help prevent the use of drugs and alcohol, and other high-risk behaviours

  • Active Parenting Now is a video-based education program targeted to parents of 2- to 12-year-olds who want to improve their parenting skills. It is based on the application of Adlerian parenting theory, which is defined by mutual respect among family members within a democratically run family. The program teaches parents how to raise a child by using encouragement, building the child's self-esteem, and creating a relationship with the child based upon active listening, honest communication

  • Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is designed to (1) prevent, reduce, and/or treat adolescent behavior problems such as drug use, conduct problems, delinquency, sexually risky behavior, aggressive/violent behavior, and association with antisocial peers; (2) improve prosocial behaviors such as school attendance and performance; and (3) improve family functioning, including effective parental leadership and management, positive parenting, and parental involvement with the child (Identified by SAMHSA)

  • Familias Unidas is a family-based intervention for Hispanic families with children ages 12-17. The program is designed to prevent conduct disorders; use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes; and risky sexual behaviors by improving family functioning. Familias Unidas is guided by ecodevelopmental theory, which proposes that adolescent behavior is affected by a multiplicity of risk and protective processes operating at different levels (i.e., within family, within peer network, and beyond)(Identified by SAMHSA)

  • Families and Schools Together (FAST) is a multifamily group intervention designed to build relationships between families, schools, and communities to increase well-being among elementary school children. The program's objectives are to enhance family functioning, prevent school failure, prevent substance misuse by the children and other family members, and reduce the stress that children and parents experience in daily situations.(Identified by SAMHSA)

  • Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is a treatment program for young children with conduct disorders that places emphasis on improving the quality of the parent-child relationship and changing parent-child interaction patterns. PCIT was developed for children ages 2-7 years with externalizing behavior disorders. In PCIT, parents are taught specific skills to establish or strengthen a nurturing and secure relationship with their child while encouraging prosocial behavior and discouraging negative behaviours. (Identified by SAMHSA)

  • Parenting Through Change (PTC) is a theory-based intervention to prevent internalizing and externalizing conduct behaviors and associated problems and promote healthy child adjustment. Based on the Parent Management Training--Oregon Model (PMTO), PTC provides recently separated single mothers with 14 weekly group sessions to learn effective parenting practices including skill encouragement, limit-setting, problem-solving, monitoring, and positive involvement.(Identified by SAMHSA)

  • Parenting Wisely is a set of interactive, computer-based training programs for parents of children ages 3-18 years. Based on social learning, cognitive behavioral, and family systems theories, the programs aim to increase parental communication and disciplinary skills. The original Parenting Wisely program, American Teens, is designed for parents whose preteens and teens are at risk for or are exhibiting behavior problems such as substance abuse, delinquency, and school dropout. (Identified by SAMHSA)

  • The Strengthening Families Program (SFP) is a family skills training program designed to increase resilience and reduce risk factors for behavioral, emotional, academic, and social problems in children 3-16 years old. SFP comprises three life-skills courses delivered in 14 weekly, 2-hour sessions. The Parenting Skills sessions are designed to help parents learn to increase desired behaviors in children by using attention and rewards, clear communication, effective discipline, substance use education and more. (Identified by SAMHSA)

  • The Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP 10-14) is a family skills training intervention designed to enhance school success and reduce youth substance use and aggression among 10- to 14-year-olds. It is theoretically based on several etiological and intervention models including the biopsychosocial vulnerability, resiliency, and family process models. The program includes seven 2-hour sessions and four optional booster sessions. (Identified by SAMHSA)

  • The Triple P--Positive Parenting Program is a multilevel system or suite of parenting and family support strategies for families with children from birth to age 12, with extensions to families with teenagers ages 13 to 16. Developed for use with families from many cultural groups, Triple P is designed to prevent social, emotional, behavioral, and developmental problems in children by enhancing their parents' knowledge, skills, and confidence.(Identified by SAMHSA)

  • Canadian Example: Distance Behaviour Intervention Program
    In the north, mental health services are located at a distance from many communities and partners seek innovative ways to meet the needs of students at risk. Among other efforts, the Superior-Greenstone District School Board encourages families who have concerns about their children to access the Distance Behaviour Intervention Program offered through Integrated Services for Northern Children (ISNC). Children and families can use materials, like CDs and journals, to work through issues of concern in this 10-week program. Regular telephone counselling with a mental health professional is part of this program.
Intergenerational Programs


Working with Community Campaigns and Community/Self-Help Organizations, Youth Groups

Working with Faith-based Organizations


Working with the Media


Web Awareness and Safety Programs for Students and Parents


Staff Wellness, Occupational Safety, Assistance and Awareness Programs

Wilson, M.G., Holman, P.B., Hammock, A. (1996) A comprehensive review of the effects of worksite health promotion on health-related outcomes American Journal of Health Promotion Vol 10, 6, 429-35

Murphy, L.R. (1996)
Stress management in work settings: A critical review of the health effects American Journal of Health Promotion Vol 11, 2, 112-25

Kuoppala,J., Lamminpaa,A., Husman,P. (2008)
Work health promotion, job well-being, and sickness absences: A systematic review and meta-analysis Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine Vol 50, 11, 1216-27

LaMontagne, A.D., Keegel, T., Louie, A.M., Ostry, A., Landsbergis, P.A (2007)
A systematic review of the job-stress intervention evaluation literature, 1990-2005 International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health Vol 13, 3, 268-80

Egan, M., Bambra, C., Thomas, S., Petticrew, M., Whitehead, M., Thomson, H. (2007)
The psychosocial and health effects of workplace reorganisation. 1. A systematic review of organisational-level interventions that aim to increase employee control Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Vol 61, 11, 945-54





E-5 Physical Environment Interventions

Research

Reports/Resources
Young TL, Ireson C. Effectiveness of school-based telehealth care in urban and rural elementary schools. Pediatics. 2003 Nov; 112(5):1088-94




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