Knowledge Matters December 2010This is a featured page

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Canada's quarterly school health report from the Canadian Association for School Health
Volume 5 Issue 4 (December 2010)
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(Download to print version)

Featuring: Recent CIHR Projects and Awards Related to School Health Promotion

Canadian research and renewed activities in our national Communities of Practice (CoP’s) are the big items in this edition of Knowledge Matters, our monthly report on school health promotion in Canada. With the support from the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Mental Health Commission of Canada and Health Canada, CASH is now able to support more activities in several of its CoP’s in the coming months. See below for the details. We are also pleased to follow up the April 2010 issue of Knowledge Matters which identified several Canadian SH research articles in 2009-10 and promised more for this issue. In particular, we are pleased to post information on several current Canadian research projects and awards that have been funded by the Canadian Institutes for Health Research.


Canadian School Health Knowledge Network News

  • CASH Conference Planned for November 2011 in Montreal
    Our annual conference, which normally is held in the Spring of each year, will be organized instead for late November in Montreal. We are pleased to be partnering with the Institute for Public Health in Quebec, as part of their Journeés annuelles de la santé publique (JASP). Other partners in the event include the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) and the International School Health Network. CASH will be represented on the international planning committee by Carol MacDougal and Fran Perkins of the Ontario Healthy Schools Coalition.


  • CASH-CACE Community of Practice Sparks International Discussion on Social Determinants, Disparities and Disadvantage
    Delphine Melchert, Coordinator of of national CoP partner, the Canadian Association for Community Education, will be organizing a session at their upcoming national conference this Spring. Dwayne Provo, our other co-chair of this CoP, brought the results of our work and the consensus statement developed at the April 2010 CASH Conference to the international School health symposium in Geneva. The statement will be the basis for a series of webinars, web meetings and wiki-based summaries of the evidence and experience in the coming months.

  • Aboriginal School Health CoP Framework Goes International
    The hard work from our aboriginal CoP members and its chair Shirley Tagalik has been recognized internationally. Shirley keynoted the recent international School Health Symposium in Geneva, presented at the American School Health Association and organized workshops in Australia.

  • Toot Your Horn by Tweeting! Do you have SH news you want to share with 2500 other Canadian SH practitioners. Then feel free to post your news on the shared "CSH Tweets" account on Twitter. Simply go to www.twitter.com/cshtweets, sign in as user "cshtweets`, password `cash-aces and post your news. Those tweets and other items are subsequently posted on the CSH web site through posting updates directly onto our School Health Blog and will also be included in this monthly emailing to over 2500 people. This “self-serve” process is starting to work, with three recent postings coming directly from other organizations into the School Health Blog.

  • New Features on www.canadianschoolhealth.ca
    In our continuing effort to use technology effectively, we have added a couple of features to the web site. These include:
    • Enabling the chairs of our Communities of Practice to communicate with CoP members through designated “friends” lists within the membership of the web site
    • Adding Instant Message boxes onto a “Drop-In - Office Hours” page in the web site. During next school year, we will designate times, topics and resource people that will be available to answer questions through private or public IM messages or to drop into an informal “web meeting” using our webinar platform. And, yes, we will also be available by telephone during those “office hours”. Indeed, the page also includes links to a VOIP-based telephone system where anyone can call us free from anywhere in Canada.
    • Designated Twitter account tracking a topic. In cooperation with the International School Health Network, we have established a web page within the Mental Health CoP section of the web site that posts the very latest research on schools & mental health. If you would like to access the information more frequently than that, you can follow the ISHN Twitter Newsfeed on School Mental Health from your own Twitter account.
    • Search for Canadian SH news using our Google customized search engine for Canadian newspapers
  • Sign Up & Sign In: We are continuing to transfer the email contacts lists over to our professional networking web site at www.canadianschoolhealth.ca Agencies, organizations and individuals will be able to control the email they receive from this wiki-based web site through their own profiles. (This occurs by "watching" or "unwatching" selected pages). As well, they will be able to use the tools on the web site to interact with others and receive RSS feeds from the daily blog of SH news.

  • CASH Leads PHAC Discussions on Knowledge Exchange
    Executive Director Doug McCall has been active in providing advice to the Canadian Best Practices Portal and Initiative. PHAC is funding CASH to map out the web-based KE activities of many national organizations, federal departments and agencies and universities. A wiki-based web site has been developed to assist in the project at: www.exchangeknowledge.ca

CASH CoP’s: One Example on Sexual Health

CASH began its work on Communities of Practice in 2006 and has been a leader in engaging practitioners, researchers and officials in productive knowledge dissemination and exchange activities ever since. Each CoP combines different face-to-face, voice and web-based activities to focus on common issues of concern. Each CoP brings together over 100 individuals and organizations with a shared interest in a particular health issue or aspect of SH promotion. We are really pleased to highlight the work that is being rekindled in the area of school sexual health promotion (SSHP).

Partnering with the Sexual Health Working Group that has been supported by the Sexual Health/STI team in the Public Health Agency of Canada, the CoP will act as a national network across the country. Our activities will include:
  • An international webinar examining comprehensive models and guidelines in school sexual health promotion
  • Building an agenda of current topics in SSHP, including urgent issues such as homophobic bullying, STI rates, curriculum design, healthy relationships and more
  • Planning a workshop to be held in conjunction with the international/Canadian/Quebec school health conference being held in Montreal in late November, 2011
  • Learning how to use new social media tools such as Twitter, wikis, blogs, instant messages and to identify and exchange information more effectively
To join the Community of Practice, contact dmccall@cash-aces.ca or go to www.canadianschoolhealth.ca sign up for a free wetpaint social media account, sign into the CSH wiki, go to your profile and “friend” the CoP moderator using this username: SSHCoPModerator

International Web Discussions

The International School Health Network, now based at the Centre for the Study of Educational Leadership and Policy at Simon Fraser University, is pleased to announce several international discussions that will use combinations of webinars, web meetings, wiki-based discussions and other web tools as part of its World School Health Encyclopedia & Knowledge Exchange Program. These thematic discussions will be led by senior editors (researchers and experienced practitioners) who will build a list of specific topics and then jointly organize and produce summaries, webinars, recorded web meeting discussions, drop-in online exchanges in these areas:
  • Implementation, capacity and sustainability issues
  • Women’s and girls’ health
  • Integrating health promotion within the mandates and constraints of school systems
  • Nutrition friendly schools
  • Substance abuse prevention through schools
  • Mental health & schools
  • Supporting schools serving disadvantaged communities
  • Behaviour theories underlying school health, safety, social and sustainable development
  • International models and statements describing comprehensive approaches, coordinated agency-school programs and whole school strategies
  • Monitoring, reporting and program evaluation

Several senior and experienced individuals have already agreed to act as senior editors overseeing the topics developed under various calls for contributors. These include Canadians such as :
  • Dr Stan Kutcher, Dalhousie University
  • Dr. Mary McKenna, University of New Brunswick
  • Nancy Poole, Centre for Women’s Health, BC
  • Dan Laitsch, Simon Fraser University
Over 20 individuals and five organizations have already contributed their time, expertise and funding to the calls for writers, contributors and sponsors in several subject areas.

As of June 2010, 18 Glossary Terms (1-2 paragraphs) 23 Encyclopedia Entries (2-3 pages), 18 Handbook Sections,
(15-20 pages) 40 Bibliographies of web-linked research, reports and educational/planning/training resources are being or have been developed.

Our technology tools enable us to host and record webinars, meeting in web meetings, use VOIP-based telephony, use the wiki-based tools to edit and store drafts of the summaries, to encourage participants to post comments and attach their own papers, documents and reports as case studies.


Canadian News Stories & Announcements in December
Webinar CDPAC/PHAC Childhood Obesity Prevention Jan 14 2010 - Comprehensive School Health http://is.gd/jDYBM

News Story (Dec 28-10) Canadians blasé about flu shot, doctors fear
http://is.gd/jDByg

News Story (Dec 28-10) Canadians trust doctors less, journalists more: poll http://is.gd/jDBOP

Blog Post (Dec 23-10) First nations’ Quiet Revolution will begin in the classroom http://is.gd/jE9DL

News Story (Dec 15-10) Healthy rivalry promoted as police guide youths in soccer activities in Guelph http://is.gd/jE1WX

News Story (Dec 17-10) O'Gorman (Timmins, ON) students paint their plates for good health http://is.gd/jE5gP

News Story (Dec 14-10) Community Schools - a new old idea in Canada http://is.gd/jE2VP

News Story (Dec 13-10) Ontario School bully program success unclear: auditor general http://is.gd/jE10a

News Story (Dec 10-10) Ontario puts cash into local theatre and school safety program http://is.gd/jDXH1

News Release (Dec 10-10) Safe Schools Campaign Egale Canada http://is.gd/jDZyI

News Story (Dec 7-10) Study links cellphones to child misbehaviour http://is.gd/ioDlH

News Story (Dec 3-10) Skipping breakfast may not enlarge a kid's lunch http://is.gd/ioD0x

News Story (Dec 7-10) Failing Boys: Best of the series http://is.gd/ioCUR

News Story (Dec 6-10) B.C. health officials want virtually everyone to get an HIV test http://is.gd/ioC2h

News Story (Dec 8-10) NS Schoolgirl dropped at wrong address http://is.gd/ioz8J

News Story (Dec 8-10) Cuts will gut education, NS boards warn http://is.gd/ioyYR

News Story (Dec 7-10) Daycare 'infection factories' can benefit kids http://is.gd/ioxYY

News Story (Dec 5-10) Education stakeholders warn of unease in PEI school district http://is.gd/iowRX

News Story (Dec 4-10) Mental health services for Alberta Schools http://is.gd/iowqJ

News Story (Dec 3-10) Alberta government earmarks $19M in mental-health funding for schools http://is.gd/ioupx

News Story (Dec 4-10) Alberta invests $19M in mental health funding for schools http://is.gd/iou9f

News Story (Dec 7-10) 'Healthy' video games fall short for children http://is.gd/in1U0



News Story (Dec 7-10) $3.6-million anti-smoking campaign went up in smoke http://is.gd/in1Ll

News Story (Dec 7-10) Video fitness games get researchers' support http://is.gd/in1wz

News Story (Dec 7-10) Nixed cigarette labels revamp cost millions http://is.gd/in1jl

News Story (Dec 6-10) Calgary schools ask: Should teachers use Facebook, Twitter? http://is.gd/iow4I

News Story (Dec 6-10) Northern Manitoba chief calls for help with killer flu http://is.gd/iiAc8

Web Site PHAC Canada Canadian Immunization Poster Contest http://is.gd/iiA2e

News Release (Dec 3-10) Harper Government Launches New Website to Assist Parents Prevent Injuries http://is.gd/iixUw

News Story (Dec 3-10) Canada lags in caring for poorest children http://is.gd/iixp3

Report The UNICEF Innocenti Report Card 9 The Children Left Behind http://is.gd/iix5T

News Story (Dec 3-10) 600 kids on Ottawa dental surgery wait list http://is.gd/iiwOx

News Release (Dec 2-10) CIHR experts discuss the impact of violence on the health of Canadians http://is.gd/iiwCn

News Story (Dec 2-10) Military ombudsman worries for grieving families http://is.gd/iivYY

News Story (Dec 2-10) Diabetes increasing in N.B.: report http://is.gd/iivPX

News Story (Dec 2-10) Track Wi-Fi reaction reports: Say MPs http://is.gd/iivGx

News Story (Dec 2-10) Schools are now offering yoga to young students during lunch to increase concentration http://is.gd/iivbp

News Story (Dec 3-10) Supply of doctors in Canada jumps: report http://is.gd/iiuYw

News Story (Dec 1-10) Flout flu at your peril, warns new poll http://is.gd/iiueN

Report International perspectives on the impact of alcohol pricing and taxation http://is.gd/iiu2V

News Story (Dec 2-10) The changing face of HIV in Canada http://is.gd/iisMB

News Story (Dec 1-10) Kids' food ads need tighter limits: Canada`s dietitians http://is.gd/iip2W

News Story (Dec 1-10) CDC Prevention Holds Twitter Sharing Event on AIDS Day http://is.gd/iibst
News Story (Dec 1-10) New school repair process may be needed: NB Ed Minister Carr http://is.gd/iovTj News Story (Dec 1-10) School board votes for Bibles to be given out http://is.gd/ioCLk

Canadian Research, Reports and Resources from the December School Health Blog Postings

Our blog also tracks Canadian research studies, reports and new planning/educational resources announcements. Here are the ones posted for December 2010:

Tanya R. Berry, Chad Witcher, Nicholas L. Holt, and Ronald C. Plotnikoff (2010)
A Qualitative Examination of Perceptions of Physical Activity Guidelines and Preferences for Format Health Promot Pract November 2010 11: 908-916,

Canadian articles in the
December 2010 Issue of Health Promotion International
  • How divergent conceptions among health and education stakeholders influence the dissemination of healthy schools in Quebec
  • Developing and evaluating a relevant and feasible instrument for measuring health literacy of Canadian high school students
  • Reaching for environmental health justice: Canadian experiences for a comprehensive research, policy and advocacy agenda in health promotion
Articles in the December 2010 Issue of Paediatrics & Child Health
  • Jewelery and ornament-related injuries in children and adolescents
Articles in the December 2010 Issue of the Canadian Journal of Diabetes
  • Let’s Take Control of Diabetes. Now.” Why and How?
  • Kidney Failure Amongst First Nations People in Canada: Worrisome Trends
  • DIABETES EDUCATOR SECTION: The Year in Review
  • Neighbourhood Ethnic Diversity Buffers School Readiness Impact in ESL Children
  • The Prevalence of Anxiety Among Middle and Secondary School Students in Canada
  • Social Capital Reduces Socio-economic Differences in Child Health: Evidence From the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study
  • Socio-economic Inequities in Children’s Injury Rates: Has the Gradient Changed Over Time?
  • Socio-economic Gradients in Health Behaviours and Overweight Among Children in Distinct Economic Settings

Articles from the December 2010 Issue of Preventing Chronic Disease in Canada
  • Introduction – Chronic Diseases in Canada and Preventing Chronic Disease: copublishing on health in Aboriginalpopulations
  • Chronic diseases and mortality in Canadian Aboriginal peoples: learning from theknowledge
Articles in the Issue #3, 2010 of Physical and Health Education Academic Journal
  • Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity Among High School Freshman Females
  • Bullying in Physical Education: Its Prevalence and Impact on the Intention to Continue Secondary School Physical Education
  • Pre-service Physical Education Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Skills, Qualities, and Experiences: Snapshots from the Past Three Decades
  • Girls Getting Active: Exploring a Physical Education Program Tailored to Young Women
  • Les valeurs au cœur du programme québécois en éducation physique et à la santé au secondaire
  • Family Influence on Physical Activity: Exploring the Nature of Reciprocal Relationships
  • Developing an Educational Tool to Support Planning and Tracking of Health Promoting Schools
  • Establishing mentally safe environments for children and adolescents in physical education
Articles in the Supplementary Issue (#9) of the Canadian Journal of Public Health
(Taking a Social Determinants Perspective on Children’s Health and Development)
  • Taking a Social Determinants Perspective on Children’s Health and Development
  • The Economic Costs of Early Vulnerability in Canada
  • The role of public health in addressing child maltreatment in Canada
Canadian Resources and Reported we identified in December 2010
  • Fact Sheet Suicide & Homophobic Bullying http://is.gd/jDZMz
  • Web Site. Association for Community Education in British Columbia http://acebc.org/
  • Ed Resource. Always Changing (Puberty & Body Changes) PHE Canada http://is.gd/jDSBe
  • Ed Resource. Vibrant Faces (Active Living, Grades 7-8), PHE Canada http://is.gd/jDSnX
  • Thesis. Effect of a Comprehensive School Health Model on Improving Academic Achievement (OISE, 2007) http://is.gd/it3In
  • Research Review. Attachment to Parents Adjustment in Adolescence: Review Policy Implications (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2000) http://is.gd/irrFM

Feature Article:
Recent CIHR Research Related to School Health Promotion
By Doug McCall, Executive Director, Canadian Association for School Health

This list of 2010 CIHR grants and awards provides summaries of much, but not all, of the school-based or school-linked research and knowledge development/exchange (KDE) work being done in Canada. We have identified studies, awards and KDE projects that describe school-related interventions as well as others that include multiple settings that serve youth or that describe health or social problems that can be addressed through the school setting.
In the list below, you will find:
  • Four major CIHR projects synthesizing the data on children/youth, the research reviews, approaches in health and health promotion and innovative, web-based knowledge exchange
  • Seven projects describing the influence of the school’s social/physical environment (as well as the neighbourhood characteristics)and regular routines on health, safety, social and sustainable development
  • Seven projects describing how multi-intervention programs and approaches can be implemented, sustained and positioned within larger community efforts using an ecological and systems-based approach
  • Forty projects and awards on sub-populations such as low income families/communities, cultural and linguistic minorities, students with disabilities and aboriginal communities,
  • Fifteen projects on children, schools and mental health
  • Twenty-four projects on youth, sexual health and schools
  • Five projects on physical activity and youth/schools
  • Two projects on healthy eating and nutrition and schools
  • Four projects on tobacco use, youth and schools
  • Seven projects on substance abuse and gambling
  • Three projects on violence and safety
  • One project on youth engagement
  • Two projects in vaccinations and immunizations
  • Five projects on unintentional injury prevention
  • One project on chronic pain and youth
  • Five international projects on schools in low income countries
The time and resources available to this preliminary review were minimal, so we apologize in advance for any errors or omissions. If you would like to contact any of the projects or researchers listed below, we can only suggest that you track them down through internet searches. (The CIHR database that we used for this project did not include contact information). The link that we have provided leads to the list of projects funded through that program for 2010. (Readers can scroll down through the pages in these funding program lists to find a longer description of the project noted herein) The relative size and scope of the research project, program, graduate student award or meeting grant is indicated by the amount of funding indicated. Further, we have added a note in small italics at the end of some summaries to highlight the connection to school-based and school-linked programs)

This listing or CIHR projects shows that Canadian researchers are actively studying health and social issues and how they can be addressed through school-based and school-linked programs. We hope that this report will enable practitioners, officials, managers and policy-makers to benefit from the good works underway. The Canadian Association for School health will be taking the initiative to contact the recipients of these grants and awards to invite them to participate in the Canadian School Health Knowledge Network in the Communities of Practice or other activities most relevant to their studies. As well, in a future issue of this monthly report, we will be doing a preliminary analysis of these projects as well as Canadian research published in peer-reviewed journals to indicate whether Canadian school health research is making the shift towards a more ecological and systems-based approach.

CIHR Funded Research Projects, Programs, Student Awards and Knowledge Translation Grants in 2010


Major CIHR projects analyzing data and research reviews relevant to children, youth and schools

  • WALKER, Robin The health of Canada's children: Developing an on-line Profile $250K CICH Profile: The Health of Canada’s Children IWK Health Centre (Halifax)
    A CICH Profile is a nationally recognized comprehensive source of information on the health & well-being of children, youth & families. The Profile will become a central repository of credible research on child & youth health, providing the ability to monitor important health & well-being indicators of children & youth in Canada. Such a system does not currently exist in Canada. To develop the new on-line Profile the IWK Health Centre & the Canadian Institute of Child Health, working with 100+ voluntary expert advisors, will accomplish the following objectives: -Development of Profile protocols-e.g. data collection, analysis, on-line formats -Acquisition of relevant, reliable data sets and research -Development of a raw data management system for development of Profile chapters -Development of a user-friendly network platform onto which the full Profile will be built -Development & publication of a Contextual Chapter The online Profile presents an opportunity to facilitate the transfer of knowledge among Canadian researchers & knowledge users to deliver high quality statistical information, research findings & policy discussions. The on-line format brings it within reach of any researcher & knowledge user with internet access, including Canadian families, allowing for a continuously evolving data source that will help improve outcomes for Canadian children and youth.

  • Cochrane Reviews
    CIHR had provided $9.6 million in funding over the next five years to Cochrane Canada to help fulfill its mission of cultivating evidence-based health decision-making by promoting the use and accessibility of Cochrane Reviews. Cochrane Reviews are the main product of the Cochrane Collaboration, of which Cochrane Canada is the Canadian branch. (The Cochrane Library has many reviews on school-based programs)

  • MACDONALD, Marjorie A; PARADIS, Gilles Advancing Public Health Services Research in Canada: Developing a Pan-Canadian Agenda $25K MPD - Planning Grants - PA: Knowledge TranslationUniversity of Victoria (British Columbia)
    The purpose of our proposed invitational Think Tank is to bring together a national group of knowledge users and researchers with international consultants to engage in discussion and debate about PHSR priorities in Canada. The specific objectives of the Think Tank are: 1.To identify research priorities in public health services/systems, 2.To establish a national PHSR agenda 3.To develop a draft five year plan to advance the agenda 4.To establish a pan-Canadian PHSR network. Participants will include Canadian researchers and knowledge users with interest and expertise in PHSR as well as representatives from the two Canadian funding agencies that support health services research (CIHR and CHSRF).

  • PHIPPS, David J Using social networking to enable KT collaboration and dissemination $40K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Knowledge Translation Supplement York University (Toronto, Ontario)
    Knowledge Translation (KT) is dependent on relationships which are enabled by distributed networks of researchers and decision makers. Social networking can enhance transparency and trust amongst network members thus enabling collaboration. Working from a CIHR IPM grant (2005-2009) York University has created Canada's first institutional KT unit specializing in health and society and has created a network of researchers and decision makers by brokering155 collaborations between researchers, graduate students and their non academic research partners, mainly but not exclusively, in York Region. This KT Supplement will build on the knowledge brokering of the first CIHR funded IPM grant through deployment of and training for social networking tools that will support on line communities of researchers and their decision maker partners, facilitate research collaboration and dissemination of KT outputs amongst researchers and decision makers and provide a unique repository of publicly accessible KT outputs that will be housed in the website of ResearchImpact, Canada's KT network. The work will be piloted on a community engaged research project "Teen Pregnancy and Teen Mothers: Meeting the Needs in York Region" and will be rolled out to other KT collaborations.
Impact of the School’s Social and Physical Environment, Routines and School Organization

  • COFFEY, Emily B Relationships between sleep, learning, and ADHD over development $150K Doctoral: Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarships McGill University
    A large-scale study which examines the interplay between sleep and memory in healthy and ADHD-affected adolescents, and in healthy children and young adults for comparison. The effects of moderate amounts of sleep reduction over the course of three consecutive nights on memory performance will be studied, as well as the relative efficiency of post-learning sleep vs. waking periods to facilitate memory. (This study could lead to changes in school scheduling, especially at the secondary level.)

  • NETTEL-AGUIRRE, Alberto; MCCORMACK, Gavin R Health Impact of Unexpected School Closure $198K Operating Grant Population Health Intervention Research Paediatrics Dept, University of Calgary
    School connection is a predictor of child well being (in particular, substance use and school dropout). By coincidence, in 2009 and early 2010, we undertook three baseline surveys among Grades 4-6 students, in a school that was closed by the school board. We will follow the children to their destination school and determine, by repeated measurements (3 before the event and 6 after), the impact on their stress (cortisol), social networks, mental and physical health and health behaviours. We will also interview parents and gauge their reflections on the transition process. (This study will also have implications on student transitions to a new school when they move into a new neighbourhood.)

  • GADERMANN, Anne M Investigating the relationships between residential stability, physical and mental health, and quality of life in homeless and vulnerably housed individuals: A multi-site longitudinal study in Canada $135K CIHR Fellowship 2009-10 Internal MedicineUniversity of British Columbia
    This project draws upon Canada's first longitudinal multi-site cohort study of homeless and vulnerably housed individuals (HVHIs). In this study, 1200 HVHIs are interviewed annually over a 3-year period in Ottawa, Toronto, and Vancouver. The interview surveys assess demographic characteristics, residential trajectory, physical and mental health diagnoses, psychological distress, human capital, family history, social support, risk behaviours, service utilization, contact with the legal system, life events, and quality of life. (This study could include a close look at school to school transitions for transient families.)

  • DWORATZEK, Paula D Direct observation of bag lunch contents and intake in grade 3 and 4 students (ages 7-10 years) in the balanced school day vs. the traditional schedule. $0K Operating Grant: Population Health Intervention Research – Letters of Intent Approved Brescia University College (London, Ontario)
    The Balanced School Day (BSD) schedule is an alternative to the traditional elementary school day schedule (TS), whereby recess and lunch breaks are reorganized into two scheduled nutrition/physical activity breaks. the concept has since been implemented in a number of schools and school boards throughout Ontario. The intention of the BSD is to improve the school learning environment by providing 100-minute blocks of instructional time. There is a lack of research investigating the impact of the BSD on children's food consumption patterns during school. While it is purported that these two nutrition breaks will be beneficial, it is also possible that the provision of two 'mini-meals' could have a negative impact on rates of childhood obesity. This study aims to investigate the nutritional impact of the BSD by comparing bag lunch contents and intake of grade 3 and 4 students in the BSD vs. the TS. In addition, a parental survey, to capture factors which may impact student intake, and a comparison of the prevalence of overweight and obesity will be assessed in the two schedules.

  • JANSSEN, Ian M; PICKETT, William environments as a determinant of obesity in young Canadians $261K Operating Grant: Prevention of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario)
    Childhood obesity is at an epidemic level in Canada. This is a problem because childhood obesity is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke in later life. Features of the built environment around children may impact childhood obesity. The built environment refers to physical features such as the presence and condition of recreation facilities, walking paths, and food retailers. We will explore whether the built environment contributes to obesity in Canadian children. We will use data from national surveys of grade 6-10 Canadian youth that we collect every 4 years. In 2006, we collected data on 9000 children from 188 schools. In 2009-10 we will survey 90,000 additional children. It is possible to link these survey data with information that describes built environments in schools and neighbourhoods. Using these sources we will study how the built environment impacts obesity and its determinants (physical inactivity, poor diet). We will also study whether social and geographic factors influence the ability of the built environment to impact obesity. Social factors will include wealth and cohesion within schools and neighbourhoods. Geographic factors will include the population size and climate of the communities in which youth live. Our goal is to better understand how the built environment impacts obesity in youth. Our findings will help inform health policies and prevention strategies for reducing obesity in this age group.

  • HUYNH, Quynh N National study of environmental determinants of adolescent violence in Canada. $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate ScholarshipsQueen’s University (Kingston, ON)
    Youth violence is an important public health concern. Growing rates of youth violence suggest a need for greater understanding of their causes. Theory proposes that the health of youth populations results from both individual behaviours and environmental influences. The built environment is one possible influence that is worthy of study. It may affect violent behaviours in this age group. Objective: To examine the effects of the physical surroundings on youth violence in Canada. Methods: This study will be based on Canadian records of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Survey. In 2009/2010, the HBSC was administered in 500 schools to 20 000 students from grades 6-10. Measures of physical fighting and weapon carrying will be used to profile violent behaviours. Geographical Information Systems will be used to link this data to factors in the physical surroundings of students' schools and neighbourhoods. Implications: This study is important as it will further understand youth violence in Canada and the role of physical surroundings on the health of youth. This will inform the prevention and intervention programs, and perhaps the next generation of violence control strategies
Multi-Intervention School Health Programs (Comprehensive approaches, Coordinated Agency-School Programs, Whole School Strategies)and Related Systems Change, Organizational Development, Capacity Building

  • HARDT, Jill Evaluating School-Based Health Intervention Programs $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships University of Toronto
    Various school-based initiatives have been targeted at improving the physical health of youth, including school lunch programs, mandated physical education classes, and educational campaigns. Whether these programs can be deemed a success depends on whether or not they have achieved their desired outcomes in terms of the health of students. This research project seeks to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based interventions through assessing their impact on students' health outcomes. Among issues that will have to be researched are the methods used to measure health outcomes. The accurate measurement of the health outcomes (e.g. BMI, physical activity, nutrient intake) has significant implications for the evaluation of school-based programs. The importance of reliable assessments is augmented when we consider the monetary costs of implementing these programs.

  • DESCHESNES, Marthe Recherche programmatique sur l'étude d'approches globales en milieu scolaire visant à promouvoir la santé, le bien-être et la réussite scolaire des jeunes : leur faisabilité et leurs impacts selon le niveau de défavorisation des milieu $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- Institut national de santé publique-Québec
    Notre programme de recherche porte sur les approches globales en milieu scolaire visant à promouvoir la santé, le bien-être et la réussite scolaire des jeunes. Ce type d'approche s'incarne dans deux approches ministérielles offertes aux écoles du Québec, soit l'approche École en santé et la Stratégie d'Intervention Agir Autrement. Ces approches sont reconnues en tant que mesures visant à promouvoir l'équité en santé. Le programme de recherche proposé comprend deux volets : 1. l'étude de la mise en œuvre de ces approches dans les écoles de divers milieux socioéconomiques ainsi que l'étude des conditions qui facilitent ou nuisent à leur intégration dans le fonctionnement des écoles; 2. l'évaluation des retombées de ce type d'approche sur les compétences sociales et scolaires, les habitudes de vie et les comportements de santé des jeunes, de même que sur l'environnement scolaire. Les résultats générés apporteront des connaissances qui permettront d'ajuster l'offre d'intervention selon les diverses réalités des milieux afin que toutes les écoles aient la possibilité de devenir des milieux promoteurs de santé et de réussite scolaire.

  • MISSIUNA, Cheryl A Advancing an innovative model of school health service delivery: Partnering to promote knowledge exchange $39K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Knowledge Translation Supplement McMaster University
    Five percent of children across Canada have a developmental coordination disorder that impacts significantly on their ability to participate successfully in school. Waitlists for occupational therapy school health support services are unmanageable and interventions are not meeting the needs of children or families. As part of a 2 year CIHR-funded study, a wide range of stakeholders from Ontario ministries, funders, service providers, educators and families participated in the development and trial implementation of an innovative model of service delivery, Partnering for Change. This model focuses on teacher and parent capacity building through collaborative coaching in the classroom. The current proposal will permit the development of user-friendly web-based and printed materials that will improve access and increase use of the results by stakeholders.

  • LANGILLE, Jessie-Lee D · Evaluating the impact of public policy on school health promotion in Nova Scotia $100K Doctoral: Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarships University of Alberta
    The purpose of this research will be to examine how Provincial and School Board policies and programs, relating to HPS, have influenced school practices in Nova Scotia. First, a policy scan will be conducted to describe the HPS policy environment in Nova Scotia. Based on this scan, a framework will be developed to characterize the critical components of HPS in Nova Scotia. Next, a school survey will be developed and administered in all Nova Scotia elementary schools to measure the extent of current HPS practices. Finally, interviews will be conducted with a sample of schools to describe the experiences of schools relating to the implementation of Provincial and School Board policies and programs. This research will provide insight into the effectiveness of current Provincial and School Board HPS policies and how schools could be better supported to facilitate the implementation of a HPS approach.

  • FINEGOOD, Diane T · A Systems Framed Synthesis of Recommended Actions to Address Obesity and Chronic Disease Prevention $94K Knowledge Synthesis Grant Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.)
    Current action plans and policy documents make many recommendations for action to address the growing prevalence of obesity and chronic disease in Canada and world-wide. The overwhelming number of documents and the need for different types of action speaks to the complexity of the challenges, and makes it difficult to know how to effectively move forward. We aim to develop a deeper, more integrated understanding of how best to act in addressing the complex problems of obesity and chronic disease prevention, and will use previous efforts to synthesize knowledge into recommendations for action as the starting point. We will sort this expansive set of qualitative information according to a matrix that will support the formation of integrated solution maps in thematic areas such as the built environment and childhood obesity. The solution maps will assist knowledge user partners (government and non-governmental organizations) in developing more effective action plans.(Schools should be a part of this knowledge synthesis project.)

  • GENEAU, Robert Promoting health through sustained intersectoral action: The case of ActNowBC in British Columbia $124K Operating Grant Population Health Intervention Research Université de Sherbrooke(Quebec)
    This study aims at understanding how collaboration between different sectors of government can help create the necessary conditions to improve population health. The initiative ActNowBC provides an illustration of intersectoral action for health. The initative was launched in 2005 in order to ensure that the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Games would leave a health legacy to the population of British Columbia. ActNowBC is credited to having played a role in making British Columbia the healthiest jurisdiction to have ever hosted the Olympics. This study will now document how the initiative will operate in order to reach new health promotion targets by 2015. Our focus will be of the coordination and accountability mechanisms put in place within government in order to achieve those targets.(Schools are part of the Act Now program and policy in BC.)

  • OTIS, Joanne Recherche-action évaluative du processus d'appropriation du programme "Chii kayeh iyaakwaamiih" implanté dans le milieu scolaire autochtone des Terres-Cries-de-la-Baie-James $100K Operating Grant - PA: First Nations, Inuit and Metis Health Université du Québec à Montréal
    Pour répondre aux inquiétudes des communautés cries face à la santé sexuelle de leurs jeunes, le programme Chii kayeh a été développé et intégré dans le curriculum scolaire de deux communautés cries en 2006-2007. Entre 2006 et 2009, ce programme a fait l'objet d'une analyse d'implantation le focus ayant été mis sur le programme lui-même (validation) et kes facteurs influençant son appropriation par les enseignants principalement. Ce programme est implanté dans neuf communautés cries depuis septembre 2009. C'est donc dans le but ultime de favoriser la pérennité du programme dans ces neuf communautés ainsi pour renforcer les capacités des membres de la communauté à l'implanter que la présente recherche-anction évaluative est proposée. Cette recherche permettra de répondre aux questions suivantes: Quelles sont les stratégies qui seront mises en oeuvre pour implanter et pérenniser le Chii kayeh iyaakwaamiih d'une communauté à l'autre et comment chaque communauté adaptera-t-elle ce programme à son contexte? Quels sont les effets du programme sur les élèves, leur environnement scolaire, familial et communautaire? Pour répondre à ces questions, deux objectifs sont poursuivis: 1) accompagner et documenter la trajectoire d'appropriation et de pérennisation du Chii kayeh iyaakwaamiih dans chacune des communautés; 2) documenter les effets de ce programme en termes d'atteinte de ses objectifs et selon des indicateurs qui seront jugés significatifs par la communauté. Pour les atteindre, l'utilisation de multiples méthodes de collectes de données qualitatives ainsi qu'un questionnaire auto-administré auprès des élèves à trois reprises avant et après leur participation au programme sont privilégiées. (Sustainability is a key, current issue in SH promotion research)
Sub-Populations and Local Community Contexts

Poverty/Disadvantage/Disparities

  • BROWNE, Gina · The Cumulative Impact of Population Health Interventions on the Well-Being of Urban Children, Youth, Families and Neighbourhoods $15KProgrammatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- McMaster University
    A study of the comparative effect of specific and cumulative population level interventions for children and youth on health, social, educational indicators of their well-being and that of their school, families and neighbourhood

  • COHEN, Benita E Strengthening Public Health Organizational Capacity for Action to Achieve Health Equity $14K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity University of Manitoba
    This program of research will enhance the Canadian Public Health sector's ability to take a leadership role in promoting health equity and achieving the WHO's goal. An interdisciplinary team of researchers, in collaboration with knowledge users in the Public Health sector, will develop and evaluate an innovative appraisal tool that will guide Public Health organizations in creating a social justice-based vision for promoting health equity, and strengthen capacity to develop, deliver and sustain equity-focused population health interventions.

  • MARTENS, Patricia J PATHS Equity for Children: A program of research into what works to reduce the gap for Manitoba's children $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- University of Manitoba
    Our program of research will use the unique information-rich population-based Repository of administrative data housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, to study the impact of multiple programs and policies introduced in the past 10 years which could potentially impact health inequities of Manitobas children. Our focus is on the lifecourse of childhood, including interventions that impact social and health outcomes from birth through to age 18. We will determine which programs improved overall outcomes, but more importantly, which ones narrowed the gap in inequity and which ones widened the gap. Our research team includes partners from four government ministries as well all the regional health authorities and the Healthy Child Manitoba initiative. (Schools are part of the Healthy Child Manitoba policy and program.)

  • MAYAN, Maria Jane Putting Research to Work: Implementing an Intersectoral Knowledge Translation System that Improves the Health of Low-Income Families $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- University of Alberta
    Our program of research entitled Putting Research to Work: Implementing an Intersectoral Knowledge Translation System that Improves the Health of Low-Income Families consists of four projects focused on how research findings about broad health influences (e.g., housing, immigration/aboriginal status) can be used by community organizations, funders, and government agencies to influence intersectoral policies and programming for the purpose of improving the health of low-income families at the population level.

  • MCVEY, Gail L; RUSSELL-MAYHEW, Shelly K The Evidence Chain in Mental Health Promotion and Healthy Weights Strategies Implementation: Determining Active Ingredients for Sustainable, Equitable and Evidence-Informed Delivery $0K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto)
    The program of reserach builds on extensive prevention research and partnership development between researchers and knowledge users and proposes to develop and evaluate a comprehensive, ecologically based intervention that aims to promote healthy development and prevent weight related disorders in youth, by way of mental health promotion and resiliency building. Embedded in that plan is to pursue multiple studies, using a mixed method approach, to unpack the active ingredients of what makes the intervention sustainable over time as well as to study the factors that optimize collaboration, partnership development, and effective knowledge translation of evidence-informed and equitable health promotion delivery across different disciplines and systems of care.

  • MUHAJARINE, Nazeem; NEUDORF, Cordell (Cory) Program of Intervention Research to Reduce Child and Family Health Inequity in an Urban Setting $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity
    Significant health differences in children and families who live in well-off and less well-off neighbhourhoods have been found for a range of outcomes in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. These include immunization coverage, infant mortality, school readiness, physical activity and other health behaviours, mental health, and low birth weight. This research program brings together a team of researchers from the universities in Saskatchewan, health region, health quality council, a city councillor, and various community based organizations to find solutions that works, and why, that would improve child and family health in Saskatoon. The research team will involve various sectors (for example, health, education, social services, municipal government) and will span the full spectrum of the prevention-care continuum -- primary (upstream), secondary (mid-stream) and tertiary (downstream). This study will uncover not only whether these interventions make a difference through a monitoring framework, but also for whom and under which conditions.

  • O'CAMPO, Patricia J "Knowledge for Urban Intersectoral Action for Health": A Population Health Interventions Research Program to Advance Health Equity in Cities $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- St. Michael's Hospital (Toronto)
    This Research Program will increase our knowledge about the best ways to coordinate services and policies from outside of the health care system in order to address inner city health inequities. Relevant sectors may include housing, community and newcomer services, and education. This type of coordination is called "Intersectoral Action for Health" (ISA). Although the idea of ISA is very popular, governments and researchers agree that limited evidence is available to guide decision-makers about how to implement, sustain, or evaluate such complex and long-term policy initiatives. We will begin with projects in Toronto, Hamilton, and Brampton, where intersectoral action for health equity is unfolding. Then we will expand to other cities, including Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary.

  • PAULY, Bernadette M; MACDONALD, Marjorie A Reducing Health Inequities: The contribution of Core Public Health Programs in BC $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- University of Victoria (British Columbia)
    The renewal of public health in Canada has been a key opportunity to enhance action on health equity. In British Columbia, there is a commitment to an equity lens in the development and delivery of public health programs. However, there is limited knowledge or evidence of the role that public health has played and the contribution of public health to reducing inequities. This program of research will generate new knowledge and action related to addressing inequities through examination of selected core public health programs in British Columbia. Explicit attention will be giving to approaches to assess the impact of programs on inequities, collaboration between public health and other sectors as well as community engagement. (Healthy schools are part of the core programs in BC)

  • POLAND, Blake D; GASTALDO, Denise Socially Engaged Citizenship as a Pathway to Health Equity for Displaced Populations: Addressing the Complexity, Innovating the Practice $14.3K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- University of Toronto
    A multi-stage program of research that aims to identify innovative approaches to the production of pathways to health equity through socially-engaged citizenship for displaced populations. In the post-LOI phase, we aim to refine the proposed project, our governance structure and our community of practice(COP). Overall, our program of research facilitates the transferability of existing knowledge and considers emerging global -local realities to inform sustainable policy and practice for the future.(Many schools in Canada are actively involved in supporting refugee children and families)

  • POTVIN, Louise; RAYNAULT, Marie-France Des données probantes pour les interventions de santé publique visant à réduire les inégalités sociales de santé $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- Centre Hosp. de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM)
    La programmation de recherche proposée est en lien étroit avec une organisation de santé publique en milieu urbain. L'équipe est constituée de chercheurs de disciplines diverses et du directeur de santé publique de Montréal (DSP-M). Elle étudiera les politiques de santé sur le territoire montréalais, ainsi que les programmes et pratiques à l'intention des clientèles vulnérables mises en place par cette organisation. Nous proposons de produire des recherches sur les politiques et les programmes en se fondant sur l'expérience acquise du Centre de recherche Léa-Roback sur les inégalités sociales de santé. Ce centre a développé plusieurs forums d'échanges avec les intervenants et avec les décideurs que nous entendons mettre à profit pour maximiser la pertinence des recherches et pour faciliter l'intégration des résultats de la recherche dans la pratique.

  • QUIÑONEZ, Carlos R Taking Action on Oral Health Equity $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity University of Toronto
    This research aims to understand the impacts of poor oral health on general health and social well-being in order to provide information for policy leaders as they try to improve Canada's oral health care system. (School-based or school-linked oral health programs can be part of the solution to this problem.)

  • BROWN, Adalsteinn D Health Equity Measurement - Networking and Brainstorming Event $8KMeetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Dissemination Events University of Toronto
    The proposed activity is designed to provide an opportunity for networking and brainstorming with a broad range of stakeholders and researchers in the area of health system equity. The ultimate goal is to generate initiatives for addressing challenges to mainstreaming measurement of equity in health. The planned event would provide an opportunity to present some of the key results of research funded by CIHR (FRN: IGO-81095), "Measuring and Understanding Gender Equity in Access to Care" to a broad range of stakeholders and researchers in the area of health system equity. However, beyond the presentation of research findings, the key objective of the event is to provide a forum to connect these stakeholders - health policy planners and decision-makers, health performance measurement researchers, health equity researchers and advocates - working in the health equity landscape.

  • BOWEN, Sarah J Promoting health equity: effective knowledge to action strategies $39KMPD - Knowledge Translation Supplement - PA: Health and Health Equity University of Alberta
    The purpose of this activity is to build capacity among community groups, providers of professional health interpreter services, and health system managers to use evidence related to cultural diversity and language barriers, in order to promote evidence-informed priority setting and planning, and to inform service design. This activity will a) develop a lay friendly 'knowledge to action manual', geared towards this audience, and b) pilot and evaluate a one-day knowledge translation workshop.

  • CARPIANO, Richard M Community Social Capital and Population Health in British Columbia $300KCIHR New Investigator 2009 University of British Columbia
    Existing data on social capital in British Columbia (BC) (as well as in Canada overall) provide insufficient information for policy and practice aimed at improving health and well-being in general and, more specifically, early childhood development (ECD)--a critical period of the lifespan for preventing or ameliorating many potentially harmful adult health outcomes. The objective of this project is to examine how neighborhood social networks and the resources they provide matter for the health and well-being of two subpopulations in British Columbia (BC): young children and adults. The project will analyze a comprehensive dataset of neighborhood conditions and child and adult well-being. Survey data on community social ties and adult health will be collected from over 3000 respondents located in 100 rural and urban BC neighborhoods. This unprecedented BC data will be merged with area census data and an existing BC population database of kindergarteners' ECD score records. This project has 2 major benefits. First, it will provide an improved--and Canadian-specific--examination of the different ways that urban and rural neighborhood social conditions matter for the health and well-being of the young children and adults who live within these locations. Second, it will provide a crucial--and rare--resource for informing policies and interventions aimed at developing neighborhoods into environments that promote health and well-being from the early years onward.

  • COHEN, Benita E Advancing the evidence to build a research program for developing Public Health capacity to promote health equity $73K Catalyst Grant: Health Equity University of Manitoba
    Currently, there are only isolated examples of Canadian Public Health organizations that are health equity 'champions.' If the World Health Organization's goal is to be met, it is imperative to focus on improving the capacity of Public Health organizations to promote health equity. This proposal represents the first step in the development of a comprehensive research program for building capacity of Public Health organizations to take action on health inequities. The objectives of the proposed study are: (i) to develop a multi-disciplinary team of researchers committed to building Public Health capacity for promoting health equity in Canada; (ii) to develop an understanding of how Public Health organizational capacity for promoting health equity is conceptualized by current Public Health 'champions' of health equity; (iii) to develop a conceptual framework of Public Health system capacity to promote health equity that can guide future capacity-building research; and (iv) to develop a research agenda for future capacity-building research. Strengthening the capacity of Canadian Public Health organizations and systems to promote health equity will contribute to a more socially just society, where all Canadians enjoy positive health outcomes.

  • MCVEY, Gail L; RUSSELL-MAYHEW, Shelly K Preventing chronic diseases in children and youth using an integrated approach: Feasibility and pilot of a professional development model designed to help build resiliency, promote mental health, and prevent the triggering of weight and shape preoccupation. $68K Catalyst Grant: Health Equity Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto)
    Chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Health educators in Education and Public Health are charged with the important task of addressing health topics with children and youth that relate to the promotion of healthy eating, active living, healthy weights, mental health wellbeing, and positive body image. Surveys of teachers from Canadian schools and anectodal reports from public health practitioners reveal that they require additional training from experts in mental health to enhance their existing health promotion expertise. Research is required to identify how best to prepare these professionals to implement optimal instructional practices that cover these important health topics, using the most up-do-date prevention practices, without triggering weight-related disorders. This requires reflection on how personal values, attitudes and interpretations of mental health, nutrition, and weight on behalf of professionals can influence their teaching practices. The proposed pilot study involves the development, implementation and pilot of a unique experiential professional development model that (1) focuses on reflective professional practice, (2) responds to two recently released mandated policy guidelines in Ontario in the sectors of Education and Public Health that relate to the promotion of healthy weights by offering timely and accessible curriculum implementation support to health educators by mental health experts, and 3) is feasible and sustainable through the long-standing collaborative relationships forged between key stakeholders on this project (Sick Kids, Public Health Managers, Nutrition Resource Centre, Ophea, Cancer Care Ontario).

  • SCHRECKER, Theodore F · Advancing health equity through action on social determinants of health: How human rights can help $74K Catalyst Grant: Health Equity University of Ottawa
    Human rights represent a powerful ethical and legal basis for challenging a range of public policies that undermine social determinants of health, but there has been minimal collaboration among the relevant groups of researchers, in Canada and elsewhere. Our small team of experienced researchers will begin building the relevant bridges, by way of a research program that is designed both to generate a publishable product and to develop an international network of investigators committed to longer-term study of how human rights can contribute to reducing health inequities.(Human rights approaches to schools are widely used in Canadian schools)

  • STABILE, Mark B Inequity in health and health care use among children $64.8K Catalyst Grant: Health Equity University of Toronto
    This proposal addresses three broad research questions. The first examines the pattern of inequities in health and health care among children over time in Canada; and the second assesses the causal pathways, and the role of health care in particular, that explain the widening of inequities as children age. The third stage of research is to establish research linkages across Canada and the United Kingdom - two countries with a long-held interest in promoting a healthy and fair society - in order to investigate the relationship between inequitable utilization of health services (i.e. a distribution of health services toward those with socioeconomic advantage), and health inequities among children and adolescents. (School-based and school-linked health care services can address inequitable access.)

  • STEWART, Miriam J; MASUDA, Jeffrey R Mapping Policy Pathways for Community Action on Urban Respiratory Health Inequities in Children and Adolescents $75K Catalyst Grant: Health Equity University of Alberta
    Millions of Canadians are affected by respiratory diseases, including asthma and tuberculosis (TB). Children and adolescents living in poverty are at an increased risk of developing these conditions. Support for low-income children/adolescents with respiratory conditions is important but currently lacking. The objectives of this study are to: (1) speak with low-income children/adolescents with chronic lung conditions, their parents, service providers and policy makers to gather information to inform the design of supportive programs for low income children/adolescents and their families; (2) use the information gathered to improve current health programs and policies. The study results will be shared with program planners, service providers, policy makers and low income advocacy organizations and implications for multi-level program and policy interventions will be discussed.(Asthma management programs are part of many school-based student health service programs.)

  • BERMAN, Helene A The Influence of Structural and Systemic Violence on the Health of Children and Adolescents: Intersections among Gender, Race, and Class $10K Team Grants: Violence, Gender and Health - LOI University of Western Ontario
    The purpose of this team grant is to examine how systemic violence is experienced by children and adolescents, how it influences their health, and strategies that can be used by youth to address and prevent violence. Using participatory action research approaches, this program will be carried out by a multidisciplinary and geographically diverse team of academic and community researchers, community leaders, youth, and policymakers. Specific objectives are to: 1) examine, from the perspectives of youth, how structural and systemic forms of violence are defined, understood, and experienced; 2) examine qualitatively and quantitatively the physical, emotional, and mental health consequences of systemic violence on children and adolescents; 3) critically analyse relevant policies to identify their differential impacts on diverse groups of youth; 4) examine how interactions with various institutions such as child welfare, justice, and health, influence the health of children and adolescents; 5) building on these objectives, develop, implement and evaluate an innovative arts/theatre-based intervention focusing on strategies used by youth to overcome, resist, and prevent systemic forms of violence in their lives. (Theatre-based programs often visit schools to promote health.)

  • KIRYCHUK, Shelley Rural Health: Connecting Research and Policy $19.6K MPD PA: Dissemination Events – Knowledge Translation Canadian Rural Health Research Society (Saskatoon, SK)
    From September 23-25, 2010, in Fredericton, New Brunswick, the Canadian Health Research Society (CRHRS) in partnership with the New Brunswick Department of Health, will host a conference entitled "Rural Health: Connecting Research and Policy" (http://crhrs-scrsr.usask.ca/fredericton2010/). The overall objectives for the 2010 CRHRS conference are: 1. To discuss intervention strategies and policy approaches designed to assist rural residents and their communities in achieving the best possible health outcomes; 2. To share recent and ongoing research on rural health and successful methods of knowledge mobilization; 3. To facilitate partnerships involving researchers and decision makers in new interdisciplinary research and knowledge mobilization teams in order to develop policy-relevant research and create evidence-informed rural health policies. The CRHRS is now working to assist research groups and networks in knowledge development and knowledge mobilization. This conference will bring together all individuals interested in rural policy and health including researchers, decision-makers, students, practitioners, rural citizens, government agencies and others interested in the health of rural and remote populations.
Racial, Cultural and Linquistic Minorities
  • MCKENZIE, Kwame J; KIRMAYER, Laurence J Pathways to equity in mental health promotion and mental illness prevention for immigrant, refugee, ethnocultural and racialised populations in Canada. $15K Operating Grant : Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity-LOI Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto)
    Mental health and addictions problems are leading causes of disability. Evidence shows significant differences in the mental health of immigrant, refugee, ethnocultural and racialised (IRER) groups when compared to other people in Canada. We propose a program of research into the prevention of mental illness and the promotion of mental health in IRER groups in Canada. We plan to build the evidence on risk and protective factors for mental health problems and illnesses in IRER groups in Canada as well as identifying which prevention and health promotion strategies are effective. We will develop a method for adapting mainstream initiatives to meet the needs of IRER groups and investigate how to facilitate such initiatives being taken up by policy makers and communities. At present no single centre in Canada contains the expertise for this ambitious undertaking. We will develop a virtual centre including leading academic departments, policy makers and community workers across Canada. We will ensure that the perspective of both communities and policy makers instruct what happens in the research so that our findings are more likely to be used.

  • BERMAN, Helene A · Violence in the Lives of Muslim Girls and Women $20K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Gender, Sex and Health University of Western Ontario
    Violence against Muslim girls and women in Canada is a problem that is poorly understood and has received little scholarly attention. The purpose of this proposal is to obtain funds for a two-day invitational Symposium during which we will bring together a nationally representative, interdisciplinary group of academic and community researchers and leaders to engage in dialogue and reflection regarding the issue of violence in the lives of Muslim girls and women in Canada. One intended outcome will be the creation of a research team comprised of community and academic researchers who will collaborate on the articulation of a broad program of research directed toward the prevention and treatment of gendered violence within Muslim communities in Canada and establish a plan of action to bring this to fruition.

  • POTTIE, Kevin · Health Profile on Immigrant and Refugee Children and Youth in Canada $95K Knowledge Synthesis Grant University of Ottawa
    Canada is a culturally diverse country that accepts more than 230,000 immigrants and refugees every year, of which approximately 33% are children and youth. Since 2001, 80% of new immigrants have come from Asia, Middle East, South America and Africa, where languages and/or cultures often differ from the predominant Canadian context. Growing up is challenging, and may be even more precarious for immigrant and refugee children and youth whose family environment and past experiences differ significantly from than their school and social environment. This knowledge synthesis and transfer project will work with a national stakeholder advisory group to identify immigrant-relevant health and well being indicators and produce a web-based chapter for the 4th edition of the Child Profile.

  • DE ROCQUIGNY, Janelle Y Manitoba's Francophone Children: Assessing their Health and Well-being $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships University of Manitoba
    With most Francophone-minority studies originating from Ontario and New Brunswick, there is a clear lack of knowledge about the Franco-Manitoban population. The purpose of this study is to undertake an exploratory study on the health of Franco-Manitoban children. With data available at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, I will compare the health of children (ages 0 to 18) attending French first language schools to the health of children attending French immersion schools and children attending English schools in Manitoba. Analysis of various child health indicators will include childhood chronic conditions, such as asthma, ADHD, and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Child mortality rates, injury mortality rates and hospitalisation due to injury will also be included. Physician visit rates and continuity of care rates are two indicators of particular interest that will allow us to understand utilization of services. The availability and use of community and social services that potentially contribute to child well-being, such as licensed child care spaces, will be analysed. Socioeconomic characteristics known to be strongly associated with children's health, including family income, single parents and teen-mothers, will be controlled for as part of the analysis

  • HERTZMAN, Clyde Educational, health and well-being outcomes of children born to immigrant and refugee families in British Columbia $354K Operating Grants 2009-10 University of British Columbia
    Canada as a whole, and BC in particular (e.g., BC Settlement & Adaptation Program), has been working hard to create settlement services for immigrant and refugee families in communities and in the schools with the aim of assisting these families in the process of integration into Canadian society. The programs established to assist immigrant and refugee families also work in partnership with communities and schools to create environments that are inclusive of the cultural beliefs and practices of Canadian newcomers and to which newcomers can contribute their skills. Little research, however, has been done that specifically studies the development, health and well-being of immigrant children over their school years in Canada. This proposed research will study the developmental trajectories including physical and mental health and academic achievement from Kindergarten through High School completion for children of four of the largest immigrant groups in BC; Chinese, South Asian, Filipino, and South East Asian; and for all other immigrant and refugee groups in BC.
Aboriginal Communities

  • MCDONALD, Paul W; GARCIA, John M Improving health and reducing health inequities in Nunavut $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- University of Waterloo (Ontario)
    This proposal will advance the partnership and contribute to public health, particularly among Inuit people. It will create program of inquiry that results in: (1) realistic and workable understanding about key factors that would contribute to successful approaches for health promotion interventions; (2) a map of key existing individual, organization and network resources potentially useful in affecting change; (3) innovative policies, programs and communication strategies and evaluate their effectiveness in addressing determinants of lung cancer, TB, diabetes and tobacco use; and (4) a sustainable capacity for interventions that would promote population health and decrease health inequities in Nunavut.

  • CROWSHOE, Lynden Educating for equity: Exploring how health professional education can reduce disparities in chronic disease care and improve outcomes for Indigenous populations. $1,234K Intl Collaborative Indigenous Health Research Partnership Chronic Diseases (2009) University of Calgary
    Indigenous people in Canada, Australia and New Zealand experience a greater burden of chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and mental illness than non-Indigenous people. This is partly due to differences in access to health care and in the standard of care received. Indigenous patients tend to receive poorer quality health care than non-Indigenous people, which is partly due to health professionals¿ clinical decision making, communication and engagement with patients and families. One way to address these factors is through education of current and future health professionals, yet there is currently little known about how educational approaches influence these ¿health professional factors or what approaches work best. This project is about comparing, building and sharing experiences and approaches to Indigenous health teaching and learning in the area of chronic disease. It begins by describing existing educational approaches and the contexts in which the study is being undertaken. Indigenous health curriculum developers will be interviewed to identify the specific approaches used and the reasons underlying their use. We will conduct focus groups with learners, educators, patients and other stakeholders (e.g. non-Indigenous colleagues) to study the impact of different educational approaches. This will result in development of an Indigenous chronic disease education toolkit and methods to evaluate the effectiveness of educational approaches. A major focus of the project will be on ensuring that the lessons from the project are translated into practice. (The CASH-ISHN framework for Indigenous School Health approaches could be part of this discussion.)

  • JOHNSON, Eva Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project $25K CIHR Partnership with Community Award
    (No description was provided)
    Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (Quebec)

  • MELIA, Briana N An exploration of the relationships between family structure and suicidal behaviours among Aboriginal young adults in Canada: Reflections from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey. $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Community Health and EpidemiologyUniversity of Saskatchewan
    While previous research has explored many potential risk factors for suicide among Aboriginal populations, there have been no studies explicitly examining the relationship between family structure and suicidal behaviours. This study will quantitatively explore that relationship for off reserve young adults, ages 15 to 25, using data from the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, otherwise known as the APS. The APS is a national cross sectional survey of 61,041 First Nations, Inuit and Metis peoples. The primary relationship of interest is between suicidal behaviours, including suicidal ideation and attempts, and family structure, including parental divorce, childhood adoption, number of siblings, etc. The study will asses patterns in age, sex, and socioeconomic position. Additional variables unique to the APS that will be considered include measures of culture and identity, such as Aboriginal language literacy; land activities such as fishing, trapping and gathering; access to social supports; and diversity and quality of access to health care professionals.

  • SMETHURST, Tania L Developing a Tool to Assess Aboriginal Youth Wilderness Programs $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Psychology Dept, University of Victoria (British Columbia)
    This project will involve the development of a program efficacy measure that meets the needs of Aboriginal communities. This research training funding will support my work to develop an assessment tool that can be used by Aboriginal communities to assess the efficacy of youth wilderness programs. This tool will be applicable to any Aboriginal group that is delivering a program involving a wilderness component, and designed in a manner that allows individual communities to tailor the measure to suit their unique needs. This tool will be comprised of two components. The first part - the core of the tool - will be applicable to all communities and programs. The second part will allow communities to modify the evaluation to fit the particular content of their youth programs. (Many schools use this type of program as part of their aboriginal cultural heritage education programs.)

  • JARVIS-SELINGER, Sandra eHealth Mentoring: Building pathways to health careers for Aboriginal youth $906K Operating Grant - Aboriginal Health Intervention University of British Columbia
    Aboriginal learners are under-represented in the post-secondary education system. This is particularly evident in health science programs. The proposed plan is to implement an eMentoring pilot program for Aboriginal youth in grades 6-10, in collaboration with Aboriginal communities. Mentor-student relationships will last a minimum of one year, and consist of online activities that address some of the barriers Aboriginal students face in their transition to post-secondary education. Specifically, the evaluation will seek to understand: 1) how best to implement an eMentoring model in First Nations communities; 2) how mentors and youth interact with each other; and 3) how eMentoring can promote awareness, interest and enrolment in post-secondary health science programs.

  • WILK, Piotr; COOKE, Martin J Obesity among Off-Reserve Aboriginal Children in Canada: Trajectories, Contextual Determinants, and Interventions $64K Operating Grant - PA: First Nations, Inuit and Metis Health University of Western Ontario
    Little attention has been paid to the determinants of obesity among Aboriginal children, and less among children living outside of First Nations reserves or other Aboriginal communities, despite the fact that more than half of Aboriginal children live in these 'off-reserve' areas. Factors affecting the health of these children may include social and cultural conditions unique to Aboriginal children. It is important that any intervention program be grounded in Aboriginal worldviews. This project addresses this knowledge gap by investigating the predictors of obesity among Aboriginal children and developing a culturally-appropriate framework for the design of a 'healthy weights' intervention targeted to Aboriginal children. There are three components to the study. The first is the use of Statistics Canada survey data to investigate the determinants of obesity, including characteristics of children, families, and neighbourhoods. The second is to use focus groups of parents of off-reserve Aboriginal children to understand their perceptions of the factors that affect their children's risk of obesity, and to identify appropriate intervention strategies. The third is a series of stakeholder consultation meetings with Aboriginal community organizations, clinicians, and public health practitioners to come to a consensus about a culturally-appropriate framework for an intervention.(The CASH-ISHN framework for Indigenous School Health approaches could be part of this discussion.)

  • BINGHAM, Brittany L The Cedar Project: Exploring resiliency and its influence on HIV vulnerability among young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities. $66K Doctoral Research Award: HIV/AIDS CBR - Aboriginal Stream Public Health Dept Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.)
    Few studies have investigated the role that historical trauma plays in HIV vulnerability of young Aboriginal people who use drugs. A holistic resiliency approach is a critical component of re-building healthy families and communities that have been heavily impacted by the effects of colonization, including multigenerational trauma. It is unknown how Aboriginal young people who use drugs define resilience for themselves. The Cedar project is a cohort study of Aboriginal young people who use drugs in 2 Canadian cities. The proposed study will utilize mixed methods to investigate the impact of resiliency on HIV vulnerability among Aboriginal young people who use drugs. Through quantitative and qualitative inquiry the influence of structural factors, age, gender and trauma on young peoples perceptions of resilience will be explored. It is hypothesized that structural factors, trauma, resiliency, age and gender are significant determinants of HIV vulnerability for Aboriginal young people.

  • TSUJI, Leonard J A Community-based Approach to Pandemic Planning: Swine Flu (H1N1) and Remote First Nation communities of sub-arctic Ontario. $100K Operating Grant: Health Systems Research on H1N1 Environment and Resource StudiesUniversity of Waterloo (Ontario)
    Recent data indicate that Canada's First Nation population has been disproportionately affected by the H1N1 flu virus, especially remote, northern communities. Differences in social, economic, and environmental factors, along with differences in public health preparedeness, may account for the high rates of the H1N1 flu in Aboriginal populations. A reveiw of the federal, provincial, and local pandemic influenza plans has revealed that although some of the First Nation communities' unique concerns were being mentioned, it was unclear how the special needs needs of the remote First Nations were being addressed. Remote Cree First Nations of the western James Bay region have recently faced outbreaks of H1N1 associated with the emerging waves of the current pandemic. Our proposed study aims to address the concerns of Directors/Supervisors of Health Services in some of these communities who feel that existing pandemic plans were not sufficient with regards to addressing the unique conditions that exist in their remote communities. Our proposed study will investigate how existing pandemic plans can be improved with community input, to address the unique conditions of remote First Nations. The pandemic plans based on the results of the present study should allow remote First Nations to be better prepared to respond before, during, and after a pandemic; thus, improving the general health of these remote communities.(A research study on a Hutterite community in Manitoba showed that mass H1N1 vaccination through their schools resulted in a dramatic drop in the rate if infections. Can this approach be transferred to aboriginal communities? )

  • JACKLIN, Kristen M · The Impact of Residential Schools on Nutrition in Contemporary First Nations $10K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: HRIAP Laurentian University of Sudbury
    This funding will support a series of meetings between academic researchers and the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve (WUIR) to develop a collaborative participatory research framework concerning the impact of the Indian Residential School Policy on the nutrition of contemporary First Nations in WUIR.
Students with Disabilities and Special Needs

  • JONES, Emily J · Development of Executive Functioning in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder $17.5KMaster's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships York University (Toronto, Ontario)
    This study will look at the development of Executive Functioning (EF) in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). EF can be thought of as goal directed, higher-order thinking that overrides more automatic responses. Such functions or factors include planning, inhibition and flexible thought (Garon, Bryson & Smith, 2008). It is hypothesized that the impairment of EF in ADHD is that EF does not differentiate to the level seen in the average typically developing child and therefore the ADHD child does not have the specialized resources to needed for planning, inhibition and overriding of automatic responses. In order to test this hypothesis this study will look at two EF's - response inhibition and verbal and spatial working memory - in both children with ADHD and those without, across two age groups - 6 and 9 year olds.

  • YU, Dickie C; MONTGOMERY, Janine M; SHOOSHTARI, Shahin G; TEMPLE, Beverley A Knowledge Translation for Teachers of Individuals with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities and Health Related Challenging Behaviours $180K Operating Grant: Knowledge to Action (2009-10) St. Amant Centre (Winnipeg)University of Manitoba
    Biting and hitting oneself, ingesting inedible things, and punching or kicking others are some of the harmful, and even life-threatening, behaviours found in children and young adults with developmental disabilities. Special education teachers struggle to deal with these behaviors in their classrooms every day. Teachers need the most up-to-date and unbiased research knowledge on techniques that work, and to avoid techniques that do not work. Such knowledge exists, but it is neither easily accessible nor user-friendly. Researchers and teachers in this project will work in partnership to overcome these difficulties. Together, they will put into action and evaluate a process to translate sound scientific knowledge in reducing challenging behaviours so that the information will be presented in user-friendly language, easily accessible, and available to all teachers and related professionals. Teachers will be able to learn to apply effective techniques to reduce challenging behaviors, and in turn improve students' physical health and well-being. The process will have wide applications for translating scientific knowledge for professionals in other areas.

Health & Social Issues, Behaviours and Conditions

Mental Health
  • FLETCHER, Sarah Between Worlds: Immigrant Youth, Mental Health and Social Support; A community-based approach to uncovering and addressing the mental health challenges facing immigrant youth $105K Doctoral Award - Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships University of Victoria (British Columbia)
    A significant amount of research has been carried out related to the use and underuse of mental health services in adult immigrant populations. However, much of this research is centered around the experiences of adults and when it involves children it is focused primarily on the experiences of parents (Jaswal, 2005). The perspectives and voices of children and youth, in relation to mental health and the challenges of immigration are sadly lacking. Working with youth to uncover the challenges they face when operating in multiple 'cultures', as well as the strengths of social support structures or services (formal or informal) that they access, provides a unique opportunity. The proposed research will help to build on strengths and identify existing gaps in support available to immigrant youth. In using a community based approach, the research process itself will allow for the continuous enhancement of program delivery while giving the youth involved in the research the opportunity to gain valuable experience and research training.

  • BRADLEY, Kristina L Enhancing coping, social skills, and help-seeking using a school-based, social-emotional learning program in Canadian schools. $150K Doctoral: Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarships University of Ottawa
    In order to face the multiple challenges of adolescence, youth must develop proper coping and social skills such as, social awareness, empathy, emotional regulation, peaceful conflict resolution, and challenging negative thoughts in order to raise self-esteem. School-based, social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in the US have shown to be very effective in teaching these skills and thus improving self-esteem and grades, and reducing depressive symptoms and delinquent behaviour. Therefore I propose to create an SEL program for Canadian middle schools which will consist of 4, 1-hour sessions and teach coping, social and help-seeking skills. To test the impact of this program, I will evaluate changes in symptoms of depression and delinquent behaviour, number of friendships, prosocial problem-solving, self-esteem, coping, perceived stigma around seeking help for a mental illness, and intentions and knowledge around help-seeking. These measures will be compared between adolescents who have participated in the program and those who have participated in a control program before the program, a week after the program, and 6 months later.

  • CHIN, Jacqueline A Preventative Intervention for Suicide: Expanding One's Time Perspective $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario)
    The identification of evidence-based interventions that can prevent those at risk from committing suicide constitutes a critical public health task. Surprisingly, however, studies investigating preventative approaches to suicide have been notably sparse. In an effort to contribute to improved Canadian health, I thus seek to aid in filling a sizeable gap in Canadian health literature by offering a unique, constructive contribution to the field of suicide research. To this end, this study intends to explore the extent to which an intervention directed at fostering a future oriented time perspective can reduce suicidal ideation--thoughts of suicide that are a reliable precursor to suicide. Time perspective refers to how one conceptualizes and connects the past, present and future. It has been argued that suicide is largely an outcome of an unbalanced time perspective in which one may exhibit a narrow focus on the present and lack of orientation to the future. The current work will thus investigate whether a five-week Time Perspective Modification Intervention can increase positive future orientation, and in turn, reduce levels of suicide ideation amongst young adults.

  • CHUNG, Winnie W The Unique Influence of Self-Perceived Loneliness on Childhood-Onset Depression $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships University of Guelph
    There is a dearth of studies investigating the unique effects of self-perceived loneliness on childhood depression. The present study proposes to elucidate the role of loneliness, distinct from other psychosocial contributors of depression, on the development of this disorder. A community sample of children from local elementary schools will be studied over the course of one year. At each of the three visits that will be made to participants' schools, children will be asked to complete the Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, as well as a sociometric assessment to identify each child's peer acceptance status. Parents will also be asked to complete a brief questionnaire providing their child's basic demographic information and other relevant characteristics. An examination of potential gender differences will also reveal any distinct pathways by which loneliness may differentially influence depression in young boys and girls. This proposed research is vital to our understanding of what and how specific factors influence the development of childhood depression. As such, the current research is a necessary undertaking towards continued improvement of treatments for this distressing childhood disorder. The findings obtained will not only allow for the development of informed interventions, prevention programs targeted to address pertinent risks can also be instigated.

  • CAPPADOCIA, Mary C Bullying and Victimization Experiences during Elementary School: Developmental Trajectories and Associated Mental Health and Peer Problems $70K Doctoral Award - Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships York University (Toronto, Ontario)
    Bullying represents a common peer interaction among Canadian children that negatively impacts mental and physical health across the lifespan. The proposed research will investigate connections between bullying, mental health, and peer relationships as they develop among elementary school children. Different patterns of bullying and victimization experiences will be examined over three years among elementary school children. Mental health problems will be explored as potential predictors and consequences of bullying and victimization involvement over time. It is hypothesized that mental health problems such as aggressive and defiant behaviours will be associated with bullying, while mental health problems such as depression and anxiety will be related to victimization. In addition, peer relationships will be explored as risk and protective factors for children with different levels of involvement in bullying and victimization. It is hypothesized that negative peer contexts (antisocial peers, exclusive peer dynamics, etc.) will place children at risk for bullying and victimization, while positive peer contexts (supportive peers, inclusive peer dynamics, etc.) will protect children from bullying and victimization. Finally, rates of bystander intervention during bullying, reasons for intervening (or not), and individual characteristics that may predict intervention will be examined. It is hypothesized that confidence in one's ability to influence peers will predict intervention for girls and empathy will predict intervention for boys. Workshops and written materials based on findings will be distributed to parents, educators, and health professionals to promote healthy peer relationships among Canadian children.

  • REID, Graham J; STEWART, Shannon L Predicting and understanding patterns of service utilization within children's mental health agencies $366K Operating Grant Psychology Dept University of Western Ontario
    Children's mental health has been labelled the "orphan's orphan" of Canada's health care system. About 20 percent of children and adolescents have psychosocial problems (i.e., problems in with learning, behaviour, emotions, or peer interactions). We know a minority of these children receive specialized mental health treatment. Much less is known about patterns of service use. In Ontario, children's mental health centres are the main source of public, not-for-profit specialized mental health care providing care for over 150,000 children and their families annually. Using regularly collected by these agencies our study will examine how factors such as children's sex and age, parental psychopathology and child psychopathology predict patterns of service use. (Schools can play an important role in early identification and referrals of children with MH problems.)
  • Lal, Shalini, SUTO, Melinda; FRANKISH, Charles J Resilience in youth recently diagnosed with psychosis: The role of the environment $70K Doctoral Award - Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships University of British Columbia
    Symptoms of psychosis (hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thoughts) typically emerge during the critical developmental period of adolescence and young adulthood. The onset of psychosis during this stage of life can seriously derail transitions to higher education/vocational training, employment, marriage and parenthood. Little is known about how a young person develops resilience (the capacity to cope) when faced with the challenging circumstances associated with an early onset of psychosis. This project will explore the experiences of resilience and adversity from the perspective of youth recently diagnosed with psychotic illness and from the perspective of their supportive networks such as family caregivers and service providers. In particular, the study aims to identify aspects of the environment that shape the development of resilience when a young person is diagnosed with psychosis. Hence, specific topics that will be investigated include: the role of the social, cultural, geographical and economic environment (micro and macro levels) in supporting and hindering resilience. (Schools can be part of the support network promoting the resilience suggested in this study.)

  • CRAIG, Stephanie G The relationship between depression and substance use in adolescences: The protective role of family and social influences $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Clinical Psychology, Simon Fraser University
    Depression is a common issue facing both adolescents and adults and has numerous economic, educational/vocational, and health implications. Studies have shown that depression often emerges during adolescence, underscoring the importance of studying depression within this age group. Studies have also shown that misusing substances places teens at risk for developing depression. Parent relationships have been shown to play a role in protecting adolescents from developing both substance misuse and depression. The proposed research will examine the relationship between substance use (i.e. alcohol and drug use) and depression while examining the influence of parental factors (i.e. support, warmth) during adolescents using population-based surveys such as the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). Implications for this research are broad and findings will contribute to treating and preventing depression among adolescents and young adults.

  • GRANEK, Leeat Think Tank for the Development of a Research Center for the Study of Loss and Grief $20K MPD - Priority Announcement : International Research Collaborations McMaster University
    The long-term goal of the Think Tank is to establish a multidisciplinary, international center for research on the study of loss and grief that will be housed at the City University of New York, Graduate Center(CUNY-GC) in New York City and at York University in Toronto. The goal is to develop a research consortium for several institutions, including hospitals, universities, chaplaincies, and other groups doing research on loss and grief. There will be three components to this center including:1- A focus on multidisciplinary, multi-method research on grief and loss;2- The development of practice initiatives examining how best to support those who are mourning and/or experiencing loss; 3-Community outreach programs that will incorporate community members in asking and answering the questions about grief and loss, identifying the needs, and participating in the solutions. (School-based programs can be part of a bereavement support network in a variety of ways)

  • MCMAIN, Shelley F Rethinking Borderline Personality Disorder: Developing a Framework for a National Education Network $15K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Knowledge Translation Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto)
    Suicide, one of the top ten causes of death worldwide, is a major public health concern. Almost 4,000 Canadians die by suicide each year, and many more deliberately self-harm. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a chronic and debilitating mental health disorder that occurs in 2%-5% of the general population, is highly associated with suicidal and self harm behaviours. Approximately 69% - 80% of people with BPD have committed at least one act of self-harm. Historically, the treatment prognosis for this disorder was poor, but one of the most important developments in the past two decades has been emerging evidence that supports the effectiveness of various treatments. The objectives of this proposal are: 1) to assemble 10 to 15 clinical and research leaders in the field of BPD for the purpose of creating an action plan to develop a National Education Network; and 2) to develop a major research proposal that will evaluate the impact on healthcare providers of increasing awareness of BPD and effective treatments. Such a network will ultimately facilitate collaboration between consumers, families, educators, health-policy makers and health care providers and could significantly impact clinical practices and policy-making, as well as beliefs and expectations of BPD among both health care providers and the public. (Self-harm is an urgent concern of educators and schools can be part of a more understanding and rapid response mechanism to refer young people to treatment.)

  • CAWTHORPE, David R Developing national / international research networks for collaboration in Child Mental Health $5K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: INMHA
    Canada is in the process of developing a Child Mental Health (CMH) Plan in keeping with the WHO CMH plan. Additionally, the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Profession (IACAPAP) hosts its World Congress in locations around the world (http://www.iacapap.org/) and Calgary, Alberta will host the 21st World Congress in Calgary in 2016 (http://www.iacapap2016.org). To this end 4 meetings are planned in 2010 to share knowledge, develop collaborations and support the participation of the new Alberta Centennial and Cuthbert-Fischer CMH chairs as well as the Sun Life CMH Chair and participants from the Mental Health Commission of Canada in the development of the 2016 scientific program. More than having a conference, we seek to support and sustain the development of a vibrant national/international network. The purpose of this application is to develop support for this year’s meeting activities. (There are several international networks concerned with schools and mental health that could participate in or collaborate with this event and process.)

  • DAIGLE, Marc S Congrès 2010 de l'Association québécoise de prévention du suicide $5K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: INMHA Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
    L'AQPS souhaite, pour l'édition 2010 du Congrès, aller plus loin encore que les précédents. Sous le thème « Défis de l'avenir, après 30 ans de progrès », cet événement permettra de faire le point sur l'historique du Québec en matière de prévention du suicide, mais également d'offrir différents outils et programmes disponibles à ce jour, tout en échangeant sur ce que nous réservent les années à venir. Les trois objectifs principaux du congrès sont: (1) Favoriser la concertation des différents acteurs par le réseautage et le partage des pratiques des différentes régions du Québec ou d'ailleurs. (2) Favoriser une meilleure application des connaissances issues notamment des recherches effectuées dans ce domaine, de cueillir différents outils liés à l'intervention et encore une fois, le partage des connaissances acquises. L'important est d'impliquer la population générale dans la prévention du suicide, autant les personnes endeuillés que celles qui sont simplement sensibles à cette cause.

  • LANG, Ariella Improving the Quality of Bereavement Care to Individuals & Families: Knowledge Translation in Action $14K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: PHSI Victorian Order of Nurses for Canada (Ottawa)
    The PHSI project will address a policy-relevant health care services / systems challenge identified as a high priority by the project stakeholders. The anticipated goal of the project will be: to design multiple intervention strategies to improve the quality of bereavement care to individuals and families across Canada. This PHSI initiative builds upon previous research and existing collaborative relationships between partners who continue to be committed to implementing and sustaining this innovation around providing primary bereavement care to individuals and families. The PHSI project is based on a systems perspective to study intra- and inter-organizational influences on an innovation. This innovation will consist of multiple intervention strategies to implement an evidence-informed primary bereavement care guideline into practice. (School programs can be part of a multi-intervention approach to bereavement support)

  • BENNETT, Kathryn J Better Outcomes in Adolescent Anxiety: Research & Policy Priorities $10K Meetings Planning & Dissemination Grant: Reproductive and Child Health McMaster University
    Our one-day workshop, "Better Outcomes in Adolescent Anxiety: Research & Policy Priorities", plans to strengthen the Canadian adolescent anxiety research community by bringing together the growing group of Canadian child and adolescent anxiety investigators with an international group of experts in conjunction with the Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA) Annual Conference in Baltimore. The goals of the workshop are to present and discuss the results of our cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and adolescent anxiety individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis (currently funded by CIHR; primary question is: Are CBT treatment effects in children and adolescents moderated by age - that is, are currently available CBT strategies less effective in adolescents than younger children?) Invited participants consist of the 21 investigators (from Canada, the US, Australia and the Netherlands) who agreed to contribute their data to our IPD meta-analysis in addition to 6 emerging investigators from across Canada, allowing a collaborative environment to deliberate and reach consensus on a set of critical research and policy objectives
Sexual Health

  • SHOVELLER, Jean A Investigating Population-Level Interventions to Improve Youth Sexual Health $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- University of British Columbia
    The proposed research program focuses on investigating population-level interventions affecting youth sexual health (ages 12-24) within and outside of the health sector. Across Canada, many young people experience serious health and social problems related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies. Despite public health efforts, STI rates among youth are high and rising; and, while teen pregnancy rates are leveling off within the population in general, the health and social impacts of these problems manifest disproportionately among vulnerable populations. Moreover, as sexual health inequities grow, conventional interventions appear to be increasingly disconnected from youth's primary prevention needs, especially the needs of vulnerable sub-groups of youth. Together, we will launch multiple studies that are conceptually linked and will be implemented over the next 5 years, with the components of our proposed studies necessarily (and beneficially) informing one another to: 1.Identify the mechanisms through which population-level interventions enhance or detract from youth sexual health. 2.Describe how population-level interventions can be scaled-up effectively to avoid exacerbating existing sexual health inequities, particularly amongst vulnerable sub-groups. (Schools should be an important part of this research program.)

  • SETHNA, Christabelle Great Expectations: A Fifty-Year retrospective on oral contraception $20K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Gender, Sex and Health University of Ottawa
    This application seeks funding for a project, "Great Expectations: A Fifty-Year retrospective on oral contraception." Great Expectations is intended to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the introduction of the birth control pill into Canada as a prescription contraceptive by exploring the pill's simultaneous use in population control policies in developing countries and its relationship to the sexual revolution and reproductive rights in Canada. This project consists of: i) A bilingual virtual exhibit tracing the past fifty years of the pill in Canada. ii) A symposium marking the fiftieth anniversary of the pill. (The materials from this project could be adapted for classroom discussions about sexual health.)

  • SHOVELLER, Jean A Empowerment, gender and young people's sexual health: Establishing an intervention research agenda $25K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Gender, Sex and Health University of British Columbia
    This funding application is to support the establishment of a population-level intervention research agenda on empowerment, gender and young people's sexual health. Objectives include: 1.Identify knowledge gaps related to the theorization and operationalization of empowerment (e.g., gendered power relations) and to use the results of that analysis to inform a new research agenda that will advance knowledge of population-level interventions to support young people's sexual health. 2.Examine similarities and differences in existing empowerment frameworks and how these frameworks might exacerbate or attenuate the impacts of gendered power relations amongst young people living within various socio-cultural and political contexts. 3.To identify and establish research partnerships (including with young people themselves) to help launch a new international research agenda focused on gender, empowerment and sexual health. 4.To develop at least one research proposal for submission to Canadian and/or international funding bodies. (Schools should be part of this research agenda)

  • MASCHING, Renée Family Gathering: Building a Signature Research Program to Address HIV within Aboriginal Families $20K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant : Planning Grant - PA: HIV/AIDS Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network (Vancouver)
    The proposed activity is part of a broader initiative to establish a compelling, collaborative, interdisciplinary signature research program that will contribute to the Aboriginal response to HIV/AIDS in Canada. The request for funding will support a Writing Retreat designed to clearly define research projects and proposals that will contribute to a greater understanding of HIV in the context of the Aboriginal Family. The Retreat will bring together existing partners engaged in the CIHR Centre for REACH in HIV/AIDS and will aim to build collaborative linkages with the CIHR Social Research Centre in HIV Prevention and the Network Environments for Aboriginal Health Research Centres.

  • BUNGAY, Victoria A Synthesizing Knowledge on Public Health Nursing Practice in Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention and Control $61K Knowledge Synthesis Grant University of British Columbia
    Sexually transmitted infections are significant health issues that can have devastating outcomes for the reproductive health of Canadians. Public health nurses are critical to public health programming in Sexually Transmitted Infections Prevention and Control. Recently changes in legislation governing nursing practice have been implemented to increase nurses' scope of practice in order to improve access to Sexually Transmitted Infections programs and services. The development of nursing practice competencies is vital in order to develop educational programs that can prepare nurses to practice within the full scope of their practice. A systematic review of the literature is essential to inform the development of competencies that are congruent with legislation and core public health programming. These competencies will assist public health programming to optimize human resources, undertake quality assurance initiatives, and develop educational training programs to ensure that the public health care system is better able to meet the needs of Canadians at risk for or experiencing sexually transmitted infections.(Working with schools to promote sexual health is a part of the core mandate of PHN in all jurisdictions.)

  • PETROVIC, Bojana Socio-cultural and individual determinants of accessing sexual health services among young adults $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships School of Public Health University of Toronto
    Among young adults in Canada between the ages of 15-19, women comprise more than half of the new HIV positive cases (PHAC, 2007). Previous research evidence has demonstrated that members of ethnic and religious minority groups and immigrants experience barriers to accessing sexual health services. This study will examine how psychological and cultural factors affect access to appropriate services among a sample of undergraduate students, and whether these barriers are associated with gender.(Schools can and should play an important role in providing information about and encouraging use of adolescent health services as part of a multi-intervention SSH program)

  • Shoveller, Jean Online STI Testing & Youth $120K Operating Grants 2009-10 University of BC
    New interventions, such as BC's Online Sexual Health Services Program (OSHSP), are being launched to complement existing face-to-face clinical services, in the hopes that they may improve youth participation in STI/HIV testing. Seeking STI testing remains a deeply stigmatized behaviour, a reality that is unlikely to be fully remedied by online services (e.g., face-to-face enactments of gendered stereotypes can also be represented online through a text-based medium). Unfortunately, we do not yet fully appreciate how important social factors (e.g., social norms; stereotypes about men's and women's responsibilities for sexual health) affect experiences with online STI testing (particularly within vulnerable subgroups of youth). Thus, the proposed study will seek to better understand youth's perspectives on the ways in which important aspects of their social contexts (e.g., stigma; gendered stereotypes) affect their engagement in this and other sexual health promotion activities. Multiple data collection and analysis techniques will be used (e.g., focus groups and individual in-depth interviews; a Youth Roundtable to refine analysis from focus groups and individual interviews and a Youth Working Group will be formed to provide insights into the development and design of the look, feel and content of website). We will use new information gathered during our study inform the development and design of an online STI testing service in BC. (Referrals to such on-line testing programs could be part of school sexual health multi-intervention programs)

  • GAINFORTH, Heather Louise Testing the effectiveness of a message framing KT intervention (Sexual health) $105K Doctoral Award - Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario)
    Communicating health information in terms of the benefits of engaging in a behaviour or the costs of failing to engage in a behaviour can persuade people to practice safe sexual health practices including using condoms, getting a pap test, and getting vaccinated. The proposed research will consist of three studies aiming to evaluate and strengthen the use of proper sexual health messages within 36 public health agencies in Ontario. In Study 1, I will evaluate the content of existing sexual health websites and brochures from public health agencies to determine whether their messages are correctly conveying information. In Study 2, I will develop a program that will teach the same Ontario public health agencies used in Study 1 to correctly create sexual health messages. The effectiveness of the program will be measured by re-evaluating the agencies' sexual health brochures and websites. In Study 3, I will develop an understanding of the causes of whether or not public health agencies correctly create sexual health messages. (The messages used in this study can be applied within schools)
LGBT Youth
  • SAEWYC, Elizabeth M Reducing Health Inequities for Sexual Minority Youth through Intersectoral Population Interventions $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- University of British Columbia
    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning youth in Canada and other countries are exposed to higher rates of health risks than heterosexual teens, risks such as violence, substance use, depression and suicide, and risky sexual behaviours. This is often due to social stigma, which leads to discrimination, harassment, rejection, and violence towards sexual minority youth. Schools are important environments, where young people spend most of their day, and school connectedness is a key protective factor for healthy development, yet many schools are neither safe nor supportive environments for sexual minority teens. This program of research, with partners from across Canada and the U.S., will investigate how school bullying and sexual harassment policies, as well as a variety of school-based or community interventions, can promote a safer and more supportive school environment, reduce risks, and promote healthy youth development for sexual minority adolescents.

  • FAST, Hilary The Effectiveness of Positive Psychology in Coping with Discrimination $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships University of Manitoba
    This study investigates the effectiveness of positive psychology in coping with discrimination. Research shows that minority group members experience a high rate of mental illness. Positive psychology has been shown to improve mental illness enhancing positive well-being. In Study 1, stigma consciousness and positive well-being will be correlated to show an inverse relationship between perceived discrimination and well-being. In Study 2, this relationship will be tested experimentally by randomly assigning homosexual and non-homosexual participants to complete a positive psychology intervention called the Three Blessings Exercise(writing down three good things that happened to them that day and their role in why they occurred). This research would show the effectiveness of positive psychology to improve the coping mechanisms and subsequent mental health of minority group members. (This research will likely be helpful in programs counteracting homophobic bullying in schools and communities)

  • BAUER, Greta R; TRAVERS, Robb Social Exclusion, Erasure and the Health of Transgender People: Trans PULSE $167K Operating Grants 2009-10 University of Western Ontario
    Transgender, transsexual and transitioned (trans) people represent one of the most marginalized groups in our society. While needs assessments and the handful of research studies published to date have consistently identified numerous and interlocking challenges that trans people experience in their day-to-day lives, many studies' results remain unpublished, and there has been inadequate attention focused on understanding the complexity of how and why trans people come to experience marginalization in such pervasive ways. The Trans PULSE Project is a Ontario-wide, community-based research initiative with the goal of enhancing the health and quality of life for trans people by engaging in research that is relevant to and driven by community members. Trans PULSE has undertaken an extensive multi-mode survey of trans people age 16 and over in Ontario, using respondent-driven sampling. Data collection will be completed in April, 2010 with an expected final sample size of over 400. This set of analyses is designed to provide specific information to community members, advocacy and service organizations, policy-makers, health care providers, and other stakeholders.

  • SAEWYC, Elizabeth M The Impact of Policies and Programs to Reduce Homophobia and Ensure a LGBTQ-Friendly School Climate $25K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Gender, Sex and Health University of British Columbia
    Homophobia, both school bullying and sexual harassment, has been implicated in the health disparities of gay, lesbian, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) youth, especially their higher rates of suicide attempts, substance mis-use, and risky sexual behaviours. Homophobic violence and sexual harassment have gendered elements, and appears to affect boys and girls somewhat differently. Interventions to reduce these harms for sexual minority youth cannot be located solely within the health care system; reducing homophobic school climates is a role for the education system in tandem with public health. However, to be effective, interventions to reduce homophobia and harassment in schools may also need gender-focused approaches. There is a limited but growing body of work on the gendered experience of homophobic violence, health disparities, and interventions to reduce homophobia. As the dynamics involved in homophobic bullying and its impacts on youth are better understood, recent Canadian research, community organizations, and institutional partners have identified the need to document and evaluate the programs, policies and interventions that address homophobia and sexual diversity in schools. Drawing on the collaborative relationships developed between two CIHR-funded interdisciplinary capacity enhancement research teams, the Stigma and Resilience Among Vulnerable Youth Consortium (www.saravyc.ubc.ca) and the Sexual and Gender Diversity: Vulnerability, Resilience (www.svr.uqam.ca), this 2-day workshop will bring together Canadian, American and European experts on school climate and LGBQ youth health. The objectives of this workshop are to identify the state of current knowledge, create recommendations for needed directions, including key research questions and research methods, and develop an international and pan-Canadian joint program of research to accomplish those recommendations.

  • MCINTYRE, John M Attitudes of Ontario Mental Health Care Professionals Regarding LGBT Mental Health Issues $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarship Dalla Lana School of Public Health University of Toronto
    Research has made clear that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals are much more likely to have a mental disorder based on the increased discrimination and stigmatization that they experience. It has also been shown that sexual minority individuals are more likely to access mental health care services. Unfortunately, this increased use does not often translate to an increase in quality of the services that they receive. One of the most significant barriers that this population faces in accessing supportive mental health care is the attitude of mental health practitioners. Due to a combination of the fact that many LGBT-identified individuals have had a bad experience in the mental health system and the ignorance of mental health service providers towards the unique needs of this community , the current study will investigate the attitudes of mental health practitioners towards their LGBT clients versus their heterosexual clients. This research will be disseminated to mental health service providers, LGBT community groups and LGBT policy activists to help influence structural change in the training of providers and thus improving the delivery of mental health services.

  • ROSS, Lori E Risk and Resilience among Bisexual People in Ontario: A Community-Based Study of Bisexual Mental Health $402K Operating Grants 2009-10 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto)
    Bisexual people have poorer mental health outcomes compared to lesbian, gay and heterosexual people. However, little is known about why bisexual identity is associated with poor outcomes. Recent qualitative research suggests that experiences of marginalization may contribute to these outcomes; however quantitative research is needed to confirm these findings. Similarly, bisexual people report high rates of mental health service use, but few studies have examined bisexual peoples' satisfaction with services, or mental health outcomes associated with service use. In this study, quantitative and qualitative methodology will be used to address these research gaps.

  • SMITH, Nathan G Project PRIDE (Promoting Resilience in Discriminatory Environments): A Primary HIV Prevention Intervention for Gay/Bisexual Men $158K Operating Grant - PA: HIV/AIDS Res Initiative -Health Svstem/Population Health Stream Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University
    Minority stress, such as anti-gay discrimination (instances of verbal or physical threats or attacks) and internalized homophobia (the internalization of negative societal views about bi/homosexuality), is a constant stressor facing young GB men. Minority stress has been shown to be related to negative psychological health outcomes, substance use/abuse, and HIV risk behaviours. However, HIV prevention interventions aimed at young GB men have not addressed minority stress and its correlates. The purpose of the current study is to develop and test a group psychotherapy intervention for young GB men to develop adaptive coping strategies for dealing with minority stress.

  • STUART, Katherine E Complicating the Stress Process Model: Understanding Mental Health and the Mediating Role of Social Support Networks among Queer Youth $105K Doctoral Award - Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships University of Toronto
    Pearlin et al's (1989) Stress Process Model (SPM) examines the interplay between "the sources of stress, the mediators of stress and the manifestations of stress," thus positioning mental health disorders as the result of a process rooted in social structure. While providing an intricate framework for understanding mental health disorders, I argue that the SPM fails to adequately emphasize the importance of cultural context on the relationship between mediators of stress, namely social support networks, and manifestations of stress. Drawing upon Griswold's (2004) notion of the interconnection between the social world, cultural phenomenon and social actors I will explore the hypothesis that traditional sources of social support (family, peer groups and religious communities) are transformed from stress moderators to sources of distress among queer youth in North America. I will utilize both quantitative (statistical analysis of the Add Health data set) and qualitative (interviews) methodologies in order to explore the following research questions: (1)How does the composition of a queer youth's social support network change following 'coming out'? (2)What is the impact of traditional social support networks on the mental health of queer youth after the coming out process? (3)How does the cultural climate (level of homophobia) of the social world shape a queer youth's experiences with traditional sources of support?

  • FROHLICK, Susan E · Engaging Newcomer Communities in Sexual Health Research: Understanding Cultural Factors for HIV Risk Reduction amongst Immigrant and Refugee Ethno-Racial Youth in Western Canada $32K Catalyst Grant : HIV/AIDS CBR Program - General Stream University of Manitoba
    The main aim of this project is to build a unique and innovative collaboration of African immigrant and refugee youth, community organizations and university researchers across three cities to develop a process for a community-based research team involving youth as peer researchers. This project is the outgrowth of a community-university partnership in Winnipeg, partly funded by a CIHR MPD Grant,that facilitated an exchange of knowledge about sexuality, sexual health and sexually transmitted infections with African newcomer youth grappling with cultural norms from their African heritage and Canadian society in the negotiation of safe sex practices. A clear message from these exchanges was that a public discourse around sex and sexuality was missing within these communities and that knowledge about culturally-sensitive strategies was sorely wanted in order to reduce their vulnerability to HIV infection related to linked factors of poverty, race, cultural gender and sexual norms, and stigma associated with sex and HIV.

  • WILSON, Ciann L Let`s Talk About Sex: Exploring young racialized women`s agency in the context of risk $17K Master’s Award - HIV/AIDS Community-Based Research: General Stream York University (Toronto, Ontario)
    With over 3000 Black (of African or Caribbean ancestry) residents, the low-income neighbourhood of Jane and Finch is considered one of Toronto's key Black communities. Due to societal patterns and policy decisions that impose negative, oppressive conditions on the inhabitants of Jane and Finch, many members of this community live in poverty. This results in few opportunities for youth to achieve educational, social and economic success. The lack of prospects for decision-making manifests in poor sexual health outcomes for youth in Jane and Finch, who have some of the highest Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) rates in the city of Toronto. The situation is worsened for female youth who develop low self esteem, have sex at earlier ages, and are left socially and economically dependent on their male partners, unable to negotiate safe sex. , The Let's Talk About Sex study is a collaborative research study that explores the question: How do young, racialized women negotiate their ability to make decisions about their sexual health in this context of high STI/HIV risk? In an attempt to appeal to the oral, expressive and artistic cultures of racialized communities, this study employs popular education theory and the arts-based approach of photovoice to promote discussion amongst the group of young women. Photovoice is a process where participants take photos of and reflect upon their personal experiences and community issues. Data for analysis will be drawn from the group photovoice project, discussions and post-workshop interviews.

  • BINGHAM, Brittany L The Cedar Project: Exploring resiliency and its influence on HIV vulnerability among young Aboriginal people who use drugs in two Canadian cities. $66K Doctoral Research Award: HIV/AIDS CBR - Aboriginal Stream Public Health Dept Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.)
    Few studies have investigated the role that historical trauma plays in HIV vulnerability of young Aboriginal people who use drugs. A holistic resiliency approach is a critical component of re-building healthy families and communities that have been heavily impacted by the effects of colonization, including multigenerational trauma. It is unknown how Aboriginal young people who use drugs define resilience for themselves. The Cedar project is a cohort study of Aboriginal young people who use drugs in 2 Canadian cities. The proposed study will utilize mixed methods to investigate the impact of resiliency on HIV vulnerability among Aboriginal young people who use drugs. Through quantitative and qualitative inquiry the influence of structural factors, age, gender and trauma on young peoples perceptions of resilience will be explored. It is hypothesized that structural factors, trauma, resiliency, age and gender are significant determinants of HIV vulnerability for Aboriginal young people.
Boys Sexual Health

  • LYS, Candice L Breaking the Silence: Developing a Sexual Health Intervention for Young Men in the Northwest Territories $150K Doctoral: Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarships University of Toronto
    Compared to other Canadian youth, young people in the Northwest Territories (NWT) suffer disproportionately from negative sexual health outcomes. Several studies measure statistics regarding sexual health among NWT youth, however, little research exists that asks youth why these sexual health problems exist and how health professionals can best address these issues. Despite numerous past and present sexual health promotion programs in the NWT, persistently high rates of adolescent pregnancies and the increasing prevalence of STIs indicate that these initiatives are not achieving their intended goals. Although many factors likely contribute to the ineffectiveness of these initiatives, I argue that a fundamental problem is the failure of these programs to involve in-depth input from youth during the research and development phases. While my recent Master's thesis research examines the barriers and facilitators to positive, empowered, and safer sexual health for young women in the NWT, future research needs to include the voice of young men in the North. Recognizing this gap in sexual health research, my doctoral dissertation will build upon the findings of my Master's thesis research to develop a culturally- and developmentally-appropriate youth-focused sexual health intervention for young men in the NWT.

  • KEHLER, Michael D Speaking the unspoken: Masculinities, bodies & body images in health and education $25KMeetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Gender, Sex and Health University of Western Ontario
    These meetings are designed as an international gathering of researchers and health education agencies specifically addressing the intersections of health, masculinities, body image and education. Our goal is an international dialogue among researchers and health education agencies (i.e. Health Canada, OPHEA, Ministry of Education).The unique focus of these meetings, unlike any others hosted to date, is the attention given to masculinities, bodies and body images in the education and health sector. Historically seen as a "gay issue" or "taboo", these meetings challenge a dominant discourse that has silenced and denied such issues and concerns among boys and men and the long term implications it has for healthy life practices. Our central objective is to develop connections internationally and extend current research with a goal of mobilizing and translating findings with practical applications such as policy and curricular recommendations in education.

  • SCHWARTZ, Danielle A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Motivations For Sex As Predictors of Sexual Health Among Homeless Youth $105K Doctoral Award - Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Ryerson University (Toronto)
    Rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are disproportionately high among homeless youth. Past research has demonstrated that CSA is associated with a range of sexual risk behaviours, poor sexual health outcomes, and problems with sexual functioning. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships remain unclear. Based on past models which posit that CSA may influence individuals' sexual development and norms, it is expected that motivations for sex may be affected by CSA experiences. The proposed study will examine how CSA is related to changes in sexual risk behaviours, sexual health, and sexual functioning over time in homeless youth. In addition, it will examine if an individual's motivations to engage in sex will explain these relationships. Ultimately, the goal of this research is to improve the long-term health outcomes among homeless youth in Canada.

  • WINCENTAK, Katherine J Prevalence of Adolescent Dating Aggression: A Meta-Analysis $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships PsychologyYork University
    Dating aggression is associated with serious physical and mental health consequences, including physical injuries requiring medical attention, depression, substance use, eating disorders, school failures, sexual risk taking, early pregnancy and suicidality. According to prevention experts, efforts aimed at eliminating dating aggression require a clear understanding of the base rate prevalence of this phenomenon. However, prevalence rates have been found to vary widely, with reports that between 10 to 80 percent of adolescents experience aggression within their romantic relationships. Given the divergent findings reported within the body of adolescent dating aggression research and the fact that this literature has not been synthesized, the goal of this study will be to conduct a meta-analysis which will characterize the prevalence of males and females victimization and perpetration of aggression within early, mid, and late adolescent dating relationships. A more comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of adolescent dating aggression will inform researchers, educational partners, community agencies and front line workers in their prevention efforts addressing this pressing public health issue.(School-based dating violence prevention programs will be informed by this research.)
Physical Activity

  • BEAUCHAMP, Mark R Transformational Teaching and Adolescent Physical Activity Promotion: Adolescence In Motion (AIM) Trial.$180.6K Operating Grants 2009-10 University of British Columbia
    Physical inactivity in adolescence has been linked to a vast array of physical and mental health problems. In schools across Canada adolescents are required to undertake physical education, and are potentially exposed to a range of activities (e.g., recreational and competitive sport) that can be pursued outside of the school environment and into adulthood. Indeed, from a health promotion perspective, physical education teachers are ideally placed to make a lasting impression on young people to help them engage in lifelong physical activity participation. However, the fact remains that in Canada 90% of teenagers are not sufficiently active to meet international guidelines for optimal growth and development. The purpose of the proposed research is to apply an innovative framework of teaching that draws from transformational leadership theory, to enhance the physical activity behaviors of Canadian adolescents. Recent research suggests that transformational teaching (a) is associated with a range of adaptive social cognitions and physical activity behaviours among adolescents, and (b) can be developed through intervention. In the proposed research we present a transformational teaching intervention, and test the efficacy of this intervention through use of a randomized controlled trial. The research will examine the relationships between transformational teaching and physical activity behaviours displayed by adolescents (primary outcome). The research will also look to examine two key psychological mechanisms (self-efficacy and self-determined motivation) that might explain how transformational teaching influences adolescent physical activity (secondary outcomes). Should empirical support be found for the predictive utility of the transformational teaching construct, it is anticipated that the proposed program of research will be used to inform future evidence-based initiatives to inspire a greater proportion of adolescents to become and stay physically active.
  • CARSON, Valerie L The Impact of Sedentary Behaviour on Children's Health $105K Doctoral Award - Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario)
    However, most research on inactivity has focused on what children are not doing (physical activity). Little research has focused on what they are doing (sedentary behaviour). Sedentary behaviour involves participating in pursuits that require little energy (e.g., TV viewing, video games, computer). It is considered a separate behavior from physical activity. Early research has found that sedentary behaviours are linked with obesity and risk factors for other diseases. However, further research of the relationship is needed because many questions remain. For example: 1) What quantity, types, and patterns of sedentary behavior are most harmful to children's health? 2) Are relationships the same across age groups and genders? 3) What role does physical activity play? Therefore, there are two main objectives of this research project. 1) Examine the association between various sedentary behaviours and disease risk factors among children. 2) Determine if physical activity levels impact these associations.
  • Gilliland, Jason Identifying casual effects of the built environment on physical activity, diet and obesity among children Built Environments Population Health Intervention Research University of Western Ontario
    Our overall objective is to assess how the built environment impacts physical activity and eating behaviours. This study focuses on children in grade 6 and 7 in Southwestern Ontario. One of our specific objectives is to map all the environmental features that are believed to be barriers or enablers for physical activity and healthy diets (such as parks and fast food restaurants). We will map and analyze features for the entire study region. Another objective is to discover how these barriers and enablers are actually used by different groups of children, and if they have an effect on obesity levels. We will also develop a software program that can be used by planners, developers, and policy makers for studying existing and proposed developments. The software will be distributed for free.

  • LEIS, Anne M In motion-en mouvement National Physical Activity Institute $25K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Knowledge TranslationUniversity of Saskatchewan
    The in motion National Physical Activity Institute is a biennial conference (2006, 2008, 2010) providing researchers, policy makers and community practitioners an opportunity to network and exchange best practices promoting physical activity at the population level. The Institute will be hosted at the University of Saskatchewan in partnership with the College of Kinesiology, City of Saskatoon and Saskatchewan Francophone Health Network. The objectives are to: 1) share and apply knowledge to plan for evidence based actions that will make the in motion/en mouvement strategies more inclusive and accessible by extending the reach to vulnerable populations; 2) produce coordinated existing interprovincial comparative analyses and exchanges; 3) plan formal academic dissemination activities; 4) translate and leverage evidence-based research results and best practises to support and sustain the effectiveness of in motion/en mouvement strategies.

  • NYKIFORUK, Candace; SCHOPFLOCHER, Donald P Assessing Community Environments for Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: Development of Innovative Mixed-Methods Approaches for Utilizing Objective and Subjective Data $197K Advancing Theoretical and Methodological Innovations in Health Research Center for Health Promotion University of Alberta
    The Community Health & Built Environment project examines how community environment influences physical activity and healthy eating to advance knowledge to support community-based chronic disease prevention. We will compare and combine two different approaches for systematically using data about community environments. One approach will use a statistical research method to create meaningful groupings of data. The second approach will bring together community partners to create the groupings based on their experiences in the community. The two approaches will be compared and combined with health data to help create meaningful information that will be useful to public health and municipal planning work in the communities.
Healthy Eating
  • IRELAND, Alana Why Weight?: How does professional development for teachers about weight-related issues impact schools? $17.5KMaster's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships University of Calgary
    The adverse consequences of obesity and eating disorders are of serious public health concern. Given poor prognoses, it is important that we focus on health promotion to prevent these illnesses. We hypothesize that professional development on the training about weight-based issues will differentially affect teaching practice depending on whether there is a reported change in the teachers' own beliefs or attitudes about weight. This study will focus on grade 4-6 teachers, other classroom staff and their students. We will assess how teachers and staff are affected by the training, and whether or not there is subsequent change in their students' attitudes about weight. In sum, the proposed study will assess the impact of sensitizing teachers to weight issues. An important aspect of any health promotion initiative involves addressing the attitudes and beliefs held by role models.

  • HENDERSON, Katherine A Connecting, Collaborating, Creating: Moving toward a National Partnership for Research on Eating Disorders $10K Meetings Planning & Dissemination Grant: Reproductive and Child Health Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (Ottawa)
    Eating disorders (ED) are chronic and life threatening illnesses. Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with these conditions, they remain understudied and underserved. In order to optimize the power and generalizability and to address the shortcomings of outcomes research for EDs in children and youth, specialized treatment teams need to work together with joint interdisciplinary research agendas. The interdisciplinary, multi-institutional Ontario partnership of the Centralized Multisite Database Partnership (CMDP) is proposing a national meeting for specialized pediatric ED teams in tertiary care hospitals across Canada, with the goals of communicating, collaborating, and ultimately creating shared goals for outcomes research in pediatric EDs. The proposed CIHR funded meeting will directly address child and youth mental health, with a focus on outcomes research on the treatment of EDs in children and youth. The meeting will be a satellite meeting to the Eating Disorder Association of Canada conference. Our meeting will provide a national opportunity for ten institutions with specialized pediatric ED teams to work together to develop a health services research agenda focussed on critical issues in outcomes research for pediatric EDs.
Tobacco Use

  • MANSKE, Steve R Improving Community Monitoring Systems for Evidence-informed Action: Youth Tobacco Minimal Data Set $25K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Dissemination EventsUniversity of Waterloo (Ontario)
    We propose to engage community monitoring system stakeholders to establish a sustainable action plan for implementing a minimal data set (MDS) in youth tobacco control. The meeting will culminate a year-long process currently underway. The result will be a firmer platform to guide efforts to act on evidence and to learn from actions to reduce youth tobacco use. . We propose to host 50 leaders of youth tobacco surveillance/research, policy and practice to establish a sustainable action plan for implementing MDS in youth tobacco control. Attendees will finalize a dissemination strategy, draft a schedule for adoption and future refinement of the MDS, build commitment to adopt MDS by major surveys & regional tobacco surveys. Attendees will become agents of dissemination within their own organizations & networks. The use of the MDS will accelerate cross-jurisdiction comparisons and trend analysis that will facilitate tobacco control evaluation via natural experiments and subsequently guide planning.

  • SCHLIEVERT, Coralynne P Individual, social and environmental predictors of successful youth smoking cessation $17.5K Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University
    Many youth studies have examined predictors of smoking, but few have examined predictors of successful cessation in youth smokers. The 2008-09 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) sampled 51 000 Canadian students from all ten provinces in grades 6-12. This instrument measures smoking behaviours and attitudes to monitor the effectiveness of national, provincial and regional tobacco control strategies. This project aims to examine information from current and former youth smokers using individual-level data from the 2008-09 YSS with the goal of understanding some individual, psychosocial, social and environmental factors associated with successful smoking cessation. Predictors of youth current and former smokers will be described using logistic regression models and compared using univariate analysis.

  • FROHLICH, Katherine L Different Smokes": Creating a reflexive space for tobacco control with youth $40K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Knowledge Translation Supplement Université de Montréal
    General objective: To disseminate our video throughout the Canadian tobacco control community by training tobacco control practitioners in its use. Through its dissemination we expect the video to assist in developing future tobacco control interventions to help stave off, and potentially decrease, social inequalities in Canadian youth smoking. Specific objective: Throughout our proposed KT activities we will be evaluating the reflexive process. In this sense we view our proposed activities as an "intervention" in itself. How reflexivity is "done" in public health is a relatively new area in public health (Bouthillier, 2008) and this grant will help us better understand and evaluate the process in order to come up with suggestions for future use.

Substance Abuse & Gambling

  • THOMPSON, Kara Dawn Adolescent substance use and educational attainment as determinants of health in early adulthood: a longitudinal study of developmental trajectories $105K Doctoral Award - Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships PsychologyUniversity of Victoria (British Columbia)
    There is strong research evidence for both a direct and indirect link between educational attainment and the health of young adults. To date however, what we know about the links between education, substance use and health in young adults has mainly come from retrospective or cross-sectional studies. We know little about how particular substance use patterns and educational attainment in adolescence interact and determine physical and mental health in adulthood. While it has been shown that substance use and educational success in adolescence are inversely related with each other, few studies have examined their interrelationships in a longitudinal perspective. It is possible that substance use is just a marker for a host of risk and protective factors such as parenting styles or household income - or, alternatively, some patterns of substance use directly impair school performance. This data set will enable me to use advanced statistical analysis to clarify the unique role of substance use and educational pathways in the prediction of health outcomes in young adulthood. Further, this study will examine how substance use and education fit into the larger matrix of individual (i.e. healthy lifestyle) and contextual factors (i.e. peer group) that influence health in young adults.

  • CRAIG, Wendy M Youths peer support, bullying, psychosocial well-being and addictive behaviours in childhood and adolescence $10K Team Grant: Early origins of addiction in children and youth (Canada - Finland) Clinical Psychology Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario)
    The central tenet of this proposal is that childrens healthy development depends on healthy relationships. The focus of this grant is on peers. Childrens experiences of support and acceptance from friends and their sense of belonging to peer communities are critical to their development of relationship capacity and well being. Conversely, the destructive dynamics within bullying relationships undermine healthy development and may lead to addictive behaviours. We postulate that victimized children are engaged in unhealthy relationships and destructive peer processes. They learn to avoid members of their peer communities, lack friends, and are isolated and marginalized to avoid future victimization. Victimized youth may attempt to meet their need for close peer relationships by integrating into other peer communities, such as on the internet. There is limited research on how virtual peer communities can compensate for the face-to-face peer community. Research has not been conducted on the benefits or harm of virtual relationships for youth involved in bullying. An original contribution of this research is to consider the destructive and constructive processes of virtual peers.

  • STEA, Jonathan Norman Delineating the Development of Pathological Gambling: An Essential Step to Developing Prevention and Intervention Programs $105K Doctoral Award - Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Psychology University of Calgary
    In the past two decades, the field of gambling has grown substantially as researchers have come to identify a multitude of predictive risk factors associated with the development of pathological gambling. Despite this progress, however, further advances in the understanding, prevention, and treatment of pathological gambling require the development of comprehensive and integrative explanatory models. Indeed, there is currently no single empirically validated theoretical model of pathological gambling that effectively integrates the complex array of biological, psychological, and ecological factors and processes into a cohesive conceptual framework sufficient to explain the etiology of the disorder. I am proposing a prospective study over the course of five years to evaluate the biopsychosocial model and the pathways model in a large general population sample (N = 1808). Structural Equation Modeling and Latent Variable Growth Curve Modeling will be used to track the fit of the models over time. This longitudinal design will effectively test the specific predictions of both proposed models.

  • FISCHER, Benedikt; SHUPER, Paul A Developing and Pilot-testing a 'Brief Intervention' Module for High Frequency Cannabis Users among University Students $100K Catalyst Grant: Prevention and Treatment of Illicit Substance Use Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto)
    Cannabis use is highly prevalent among young people, and specifically among university students. Its use is associated with a variety of health risks and harms, the odds of which are highest among high frequency cannabis users. While not all frequent users are in need of treatment and substance use treatment resources are limited, this project - following successful models from the alcohol field - will develop and pilot test oral and written 'brief intervention' [BI] modules for frequent cannabis users among university students, providing information on health risks and strategies for risk reduction to be applied in non-specialist settings. Feasibility, effect sizes and short-term outcomes of the BI modules on cannabis use risks and harms will be evaluated in a controlled study design. Findings may have implications for targeted prevention delivery for high risk substance use in university settings, as well as will be used to inform the design and implementation of a large-scale trial of different BI- and treatment interventions for high-risk cannabis use.

  • KRANK, Marvin D Alternative intervention for marijuana use (AIM): Addressing individual risk factors for transitions to initiation and escalation of marijuana use in early adolescence. $87K Catalyst Grant: Prevention and Treatment of Illicit Substance Use University of British Columbia
    Marijuana use is a major problem among youth. Such use is linked to a host of negative outcomes and risky behaviours, including academic problems, dropping out of school, increased mental health problems, risky sexual activity, unsafe driving practices, and progression to other illicit drug use. Despite the best intentions, universal prevention programs designed to address this problem in the general population reach only a small number of at risk adolescents effectively. Research suggests that this lack of success occurs because programs fail to address important individual differences. These differences mean that many interventions are misdirected and can even produce in some an increased risk for marijuana use. The present research explores a new way to target differential risk factors for transitions to initiation and escalation of marijuana use in early adolescence. The approach uses an Ask, Assess, and Advise approach. The program first asks about a number of critical social, environmental, and cognitive risk factors. These include past alcohol and tobacco use, cognitive associations with marijuana use, experience with violence and neglect, peer and parent use, and personality traits. The assessment consists of a novel computer-based coding of responses and classification of risk levels against established risk profiles. Finally, individual advice targets the specific risk factor and is linked with the assessment. This program will explore the feasibility of implementing and testing this prevention approach in school-based prevention.

  • ASBRIDGE, Mark Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: A systematic review of observational studies $39Knowledge Synthesis Grant: Prevention and Treatment of Illicit Substance Use Dalhousie University (Nova Scotia) Community Health and Epidemiology
    Impaired driving is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in Canada, and is a tremendous burden on health care. Recent evidence has shown cannabis as playing an important role in road safety. Surveys have demonstrated that driving under the influence of cannabis has caught up to, and in some instances passed, rates of driving under the influence of alcohol in many jurisdictions, while collision studies have found that the rate of cannabis in the blood of injured and fatally injured drivers has increased in recent years. Despite this, research findings on the effects of cannabis on driver impairment and collision risk have been mixed. we propose to complete a systematic review and meta analysis of the observational epidemiological literature to answer the question: Does the acute consumption of cannabis (cannabinoids, THC) among drivers increase the risk of a motor vehicle collision?
Youth Safety, Crime, Violence

  • CAPPADOCIA, Mary C Bullying and Victimization Experiences during Elementary School: Developmental Trajectories and Associated Mental Health and Peer Problems $70K Doctoral Award - Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships York university, Ontario
    Bullying represents a common peer interaction among Canadian children that negatively impacts mental and physical health across the lifespan. The proposed research will investigate connections between bullying, mental health, and peer relationships as they develop among elementary school children. Different patterns of bullying and victimization experiences will be examined over three years among elementary school children. Mental health problems will be explored as potential predictors and consequences of bullying and victimization involvement over time. It is hypothesized that mental health problems such as aggressive and defiant behaviours will be associated with bullying, while mental health problems such as depression and anxiety will be related to victimization

  • SNIDER, Carolyn A Feasibility Study Examining Referral to Community-Based Youth Violence Interventions for Youth Injured by Violence $88K Catalyst Grant: Primary and Community-Based Healthcare St. Michael's Hospital (Toronto
    Youth violence is an immense burden in Canada. Violent injury is a significant risk factor for further violence and injury. It is estimated that almost 2/3 of youth assessed in the ED for an assault-related injury had received medical care for another assault-related injury in the prior year. Community youth violence prevention programs work with youth to address risk factors that otherwise would put them at risk of further violence. Unfortunately, there is no linkage between youth treated for violent injuries and the community programs designed to break the cycle of interpersonal violence. As many of these youth present to an ED, we postulate that this setting can be used to create a link between the injured and community programs in order to prevent recurrent intentional injury and violence. The purpose of this proposal is to evaluate the feasibility of a referral-based secondary prevention program designed to reduce the risk of recurrent injury due to violence. The preliminary data gained from this pilot prospective cohort study will support a larger planned pragmatic randomized control trial (RCT) that will measure the effectiveness of this intervention in reducing recurrent intentional injury.
Youth Engagement, Positive Youth Development

  • HUMPHRYS, Kathryn R Engaging youth in the process of their own health: Addressing the psychosocial factors of cardiovascular health Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Brock University (Ontario)
    Youth who are truly engaged in health promotion programs will be motivated to make healthy choices and adopt positive attitudes towards health. Schools, families and communities that work together with young people will see changes in youth health, including positive health indicators, high resiliency and strong connection to schools and communities. Youth engagement programs are a promising strategy for addressing current challenges in youth health, including the many social factors that impact childhood blood pressure and heart health. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of using youth engagement for health promotion programs that address the social determinants of childhood blood pressure and cardiovascular health. This study will evaluate the design and implementation of a health promotion intervention that will work collaboratively with grade 7 students from 5 intervention schools to design and implement a school and family hypertension initiative as part of an ongoing multi-disciplinary research project. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis will examine differences between intervention schools and 5 matched control schools.
Vaccinations & Immunization

  • NGUYEN, Trang T Understanding the issues surrounding parents' decisions to accept new vaccines for their children: A psychological theory-based approach. $17.5K Master's Award: Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships
    Vaccination continues to be an essential intervention to protect the health of people worldwide against infectious diseases. In recent years, a number of new vaccines have been made available to the public. However, concerns have emerged about the public's acceptance of an increasing number of vaccines. Some evidence of this has emerged in the response to the HPV vaccine rollout in Ontario; in particular as well is the ambivalence concerning the H1N1 vaccine - strongly desired by some, but still having a suboptimal rate of uptake across the general population. Several new vaccines are expected to be released in the near future, many of which will be targeted at children. The ultimate success of these vaccination campaigns will depend on the willingness of parents to vaccinate their children. Therefore, it is critical to understand what influences parents' decisions to vaccinate their children. To date, the focus of research has been on logistic barriers to vaccination. Relatively little work has tried to understand the psychology of the behaviours underlying people's decision to accept new vaccines. The primary objective of my thesis will be to examine whether theory-derived psychological constructs can provide more in-depth insight on how parents make decisions around vaccines for their children.

  • GOEL, Vivek; SIDER, Douglas Assessment of Factors Associated with School Compliance with Ministry of Health pH1N1 Guidelines During Wave Two of Ontario's Influenza Pandemic $56K Operating Grant: Health Systems Research on H1N1 Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Toronto, Ontario) University of Toronto
    Schools have been recognized as venues where infectious diseases such as pandemic influenza can spread, not only amongst students and staff within the school environment but as well beyond, to households and communities. Although multiple pH1N1 guidance documents were released by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care to aid schools in prevention and control efforts during the 2009 pandemic influenza second wave, it is unclear to what extent these documents were useful and complied with. This study assesses the extent of compliance with pandemic influenza prevention and control recommendations/guidelines, for example promotion of hand hygiene and the exclusion of ill students/staff. The study will be carried out in four southern Ontario public health units and involve 20 schools that span the public, Catholic and French-speaking boards of education. In addition, schools will be selected based on urban vs. rural location and socio-economic and ethno-cultural characteristics. The study will employ research methods such as document review, interviews of board of education directors, principals of the selected schools and public health staff assigned to those schools, as well as focus groups of selected teachers and parent council members at these schools. The study will look at how initiatives known to aid prevention and control compliance in healthcare settings, e.g. senior leadership support, education on prevention and control methods and audit-feedback of the use of preventive practices, occur in educational settings. The study will define ways to measure compliance with recommended prevention and control guidelines and determine how compliance is influenced by the factors and school characteristics noted above. The study will focus on identifying factors that impede or limit compliance with recommended prevention and control measures, with the aim of improving products and processes to improve compliance with health in the future.
Injury Prevention

  • PIKE, Ian Planning the Canadian Injury Prevention Research Network $25K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant : Planning Grants University of British Columbia
    Injury Prevention as a recognized national priority has been building for years. We are requesting funds to support a meeting of the future Canadian Injury Prevention Research Network to be held in Vancouver, Canada, timed to develop and finalize a grant proposal for submission in the Fall of 2011. The primary goal of this meeting is to bring together key injury prevention researchers and practitioners to address the question "How do we form a strong network of injury researchers in Canada to increase the effectiveness of injury research through improved communication, and knowledge and resource sharing."

  • PIKE, Ian; MACPHERSON, Alison Child and Youth Injury Indicators: Language Translation and Dissemination $40K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Knowledge Translation Supplement University of British Columbia
    The Canadian Injury Indicators Development Team and the First Nations and Inuit Children and Youth Injury Indicators Working Group have created evidence-based child and youth injury indicators to monitor the injury prevention system in Canada. Three sets of indicators have been developed, generalizable to the general Canadian child and youth population; First Nations child and youth population; and Inuit child and youth population. The proposed activities for this project are to: translate three reports into French; translate the Mainstream Specifications Tables document into French; translate the Inuit report into Inuktitut; and launch and disseminate these products as part of an integrated, comprehensive knowledge translation strategy.

  • PIKE, Ian; MACPHERSON, Alison Developing and Promoting an online Child and Youth Injury Dashboard $40K Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Knowledge Translation Supplement University of British Columbia
    Funds are requested to support two dissemination/KT meetings of the Canadian Injury Indicators Team and four conference workshop presentations for the dissemination of two products and the design and development of a dissemination tool - The Canadian Child and Youth Injury Dashboard. A peer-reviewed publication (in press) and a lay-language summary Measuring Injury Matters: Injury Indicators for Children and Youth in Canada - Vols. 1& 2 are the products of the work of the Canadian Injury Indicators Team since 2006

  • PIKE, Ian; MACPHERSON, Alison Striving to Go Live: The Canadian Child and Youth Injury Dashboard $14K MPD - Planning Grants - PA: Knowledge Translation University of British Columbia
    The goal of these meetings is to continue the work of the Child and Youth Injury Indicators Team, a collaborative group of researchers and partners established in 2006, to plan Going Live with the Canadian Child and Youth Injury Dashboard. The aim is to develop a CIHR Integrated Knowledge Translation Operating Grant application for 2010. These meetings will have the following key outcomes: 1.A detailed plan and timeline for the Team to move forward with the collaborative development of a CHIR Integrated Knowledge Translation Grant (2010). 2.Preliminary details regarding the software development and data requirements for the practical design and development of the Canadian Child and Youth Injury dashboard. Ultimately, this work has the potential to increase: •Child and youth injury prevention activity in Canada •Capacity building among both researchers and stakeholders in terms of new resources and knowledge translation tools.

  • PIKE, Ian; BRUSSONI, Mariana J et al CIHR Team in Child and Youth Injury Prevention $800K Team Grant: Strategic Teams in Applied Injury Research - Full application Pediatrics University of British Columbia
    The CIHR Team in Child and Youth Injury Prevention addresses calls for improved Canadian child and youth injury prevention initiatives by focusing on research and its application for prevention, training and capacity building, and enhanced communications within the injury prevention community. Activities include assessing: the burden of child and youth injury by looking at the long-term costs to the individual, family and society; paediatric trauma systems - getting the right patient to the right place at the right time; Aboriginal child and youth injury; and high risk injury groups based on stages of childhood (supervision of young children, child pedestrian injury, snowboarding injury, junior high curriculum-based sports-injury prevention, and identifying adolescent risk takers). The Team will use novel methods (e.g. spatial analysis) to identify risk factors based on injury hotspots; virtual reality environments to study child behaviour; and web-based interventions to deliver information to youth. Innovative products will include a Web Portal, a Child and Youth Injury Indicators Dashboard, and an Atlas of Child and Youth Injury. The Dashboard will provide current information on injury indicators to inform the development of injury prevention policies, prevention and research. The Atlas will include maps and spatial analyses from the Burden, Trauma and Aboriginal Injury studies. The Web Portal will serve as a communications platform for on-line discussions, seminars, meetings, and communiqués; house the Dashboard and Atlas, providing current surveillance information; serve as a repository for injury prevention knowledge, evidence and tools; display team abstracts, presentations, publications and reviews; and link and present information from other sources.
Chronic Pain

  • MCGRATH, Patrick J · Identification of physical and psychosocial predictors of chronic pain in children and adolescents: A first step towards prevention $99K Knowledge Synthesis Grant IWK Health Centre (Halifax)
    Chronic pain is relatively common among children and adolescents; we still do not know what causes chronic pain. Biopsychosocial predictors are involved in the onset and course of this chronic condition over time. We want to systematically explore the knowledge available about the physical and psychosocial predictors of pediatric chronic pain. In order to be able to determine which factors contribute to pediatric chronic pain, a systematic review will be conducted reviewing the physical and psychosocial predictors of onset of chronic pain and persistence of chronic pain over time. The knowledge derived from this review will be used to start to plan preventive actions.
School Health, Safety & Development Programs in Low & Middle Income Countries

  • GYORKOS, Theresa W Workshop to integrate a deworming intervention into preschool child health packages in the Americas $25K MPD - Planning Grants - PA: Improve Health and Health Equity The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre
    The proposed workshop will bring together Canadian and international researchers, LMIC program managers, and experts in the fields of nutrition, parasitology, epidemiology, and health interventions. It will take place in Washington, DC and will be held in collaboration with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The theme will be the integration of a deworming intervention into core preschool child health packages in the Americas with the ultimate goal of improving child growth and development, thereby reducing health inequities in this age group. Worm infections like the soil-transmitted helminths (STH) contribute to health inequities in already resource-poor areas where adverse social, economic, education and other related factors contribute to the burden of poverty and poor health in childhood. Although the benefits of deworming in school-age children are well-known, much less emphasis has been given to preschool-age children who are at the most critical stage of growth and development. The workshop aims to communicate the lessons learned from research evidence, PAHO/WHO experience and from endemic countries in the Americas that have, and have not, reached good levels of coverage of their preschool-age population.

  • ANDERMANN, Anne; NASRULLAH, Muazzam Breaking the cycle of entrenched multi-generational health inequities by developing interventions to tackle child labour and promote childhood development $15K Programmatic Grants to tackle health and health equity- Family MedicineMcGill University
    In many low and middle income countries, the tremendous health inequities that persist can be attributed to a vicious cycle of poverty, social exclusion and poor health among adults, leading to high rates of child labour of up to 80% and more in some settings to supplement the family income, thereby resulting in lower educational attainment and literacy for these children, fewer and lower quality occupational opportunities over time, and still more poverty, social exclusion and poor health when they grow to reach adulthood and start their own families. The overall goal of this programmatic research is to target child labour as the key to breaking the cycle of poverty, social exclusion, gender-based violence and poor health commonly found in South Asia, Africa and Latin America, thereby improving the health of children and adolescents in the short term while also reducing health and social inequities in a more strategic, long term and sustainable way. A multidisciplinary team of global health researchers and knowledge end users from four priority countries (Pakistan, Brazil, ***** and Bangladesh) are working with local communities to better understand the causes, types and frequency of child labour and to develop affordable, evidence-based and culturally adapted solutions that can be tested, implemented and evaluated at a population level. Each research site will have a lead researcher and primary knowledge user from that country responsible for conducting the research, empowering the local community, training local researchers and knowledge users, and ensuring that the research findings are used to change policy and practice to improve the health and well-being of children, and to reduce health inequities for current and future generations

  • BUBELA, Tania M Assessing Canadian Knowledge Translation Approaches in Global Health Research $15K CANADIAN COALITION FOR, Global Hlth Res; Ottawa
    This proposal is to cover the costs of convening a multi-stakeholder, 1.75 day workshop at Mount Royal University in Calgary that will bring together Canadian global health researchers, Canadian funders (e.g. CIHR, IDRC, CIDA, and GHRI), Canadian foundations, and experts in knowledge translation from Canada and from one low- and middle-income Country. This workshop will first discuss an overview of various KT activities, approaches and projects, followed by the development of evaluation criteria to assess what works in knowledge translation. What, for instance, marks a successful knowledge translation approach? What have Canada and Canadians learned from their extensive experience in the field? These criteria and subsequent analysis will lead into a position paper to be published in a medical journal with a focus on global health research. A collaborative working group of participating researchers and knowledge-users will then develop a full proposal for a Report Card on Canadian knowledge translation activities in global health research.

  • BYERS, Elaine S Barriers to and Facilitators of the Implementation of a National Sexual and Reproductive Health Education Curriculum in the Schools of India $0K University of New Brunswick (Fredericton)
    India has one of the world's poorest sexual/reproductive health records among adolescents. Sexual health education is a fundamental platform upon which healthy sexual practices can be adopted. Schools provide a structured context for relaying sexual health information. The Central Government in India is trying to implement an innovative and comprehensive national sex education program (the AEP) to counter this abysmal adolescent health record. Unfortunately, one-quarter of state governments are actively resisting implementation of the AEP; others are implementing versions that omit critical issues (e.g., sexual intercourse). Opponents argue that efforts to implement the AEP have "devalued Indian culture and values." Yet, other key initiatives that Central Government wants to implement that will improve adolescents' quality of life are directly dependent on youth's acquisition of this important sexual information. A means to resolve this debate is urgently needed because the two positions are becoming increasingly polarized, making the possibility of effective policy development and meaningful delivery of sexual health education ever more remote. There are no data to inform this debate. Understanding the individual, sociocultural, and political factors that interfere with or facilitate the adoption and implementation of the AEP is essential. We propose to address this challenge by assessing key attitudes and experiences among three stakeholder groups (i.e., state government officials, school administrators, and teachers), who together are responsible for adoption and implementation of the curriculum. There are three central research questions: What factors prevent or facilitate AEP adoption? To what extent are schools offering sexual health education and the AEP in particular? How do individual and sociocultural factors (including gender) affect administrators' and teachers' attitudes toward, perceptions of, and experiences with sexual health education?



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